Sociology Research Guide
- Picking a topic
- Background research and finding books
- Advanced searching in databases and Google
- Finding statistics
- Evaluating sources
What Is APA Style?
Apa resources, citing sources in apa style, cite right in apa, microsoft word templates, apa publication manual in the library.
- Literature Reviews
- SOC1: Morales (Cultural Artifact)
- SOC4: Ie (Literature Review)
- Each academic discipline has its own rules for citing ideas and words borrowed from other writers and researchers.
- The Social Sciences use the American Psychological Association style rules.
- The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association contains comprehensive rules and examples for citing.
- APA 7 Guide
- APA Student Sample Paper
- Scaffolded APA Worksheet with Elements
- Excelsior OWL APA Style Guide
- How to Create a Hanging Indent in Word
- How to Create a Hanging Indent in Google Docs
- How to Cite the DSM-V and DSM-V Entries
- ZoteroBib Citation Generator
How does citing in APA work?
Step 1: Create a References page
- Include a reference list at the end of your paper. The list should contain a full citation for each source included among your in-text citations.
- The references list should begin on a new page at the end of your paper with the word "References" bold and centered at the top of the page.
- Organize citations alphabetically by the first word. Usually this will be the author's last name, but, if the source has no author, you'll use the title of the source.
- The information these full citations should include depends on the type of source you're citing - for example, whether it's a book, an encyclopedia entry, or an article in a periodical. You'll find the formulas for the most common source types in our APA 7 Quick Guide . If you're having difficulty identifying the type of source you're using, consult a librarian.
Step 2: Use in-text citations throughout your paper
- Use an in-text citation to acknowledge that you are quoting or paraphrasing another author's words, ideas or data in the text of your research paper.
- Add in-text citations in parentheses at the end of the sentence but before the final punctuation (like this).
- the last name of the author(s)
- the year of publication
- the number of the page(s) where you found the information, preceded by the abbreviation p. for a single page or pp. for a range of pages
- example: (Rivera, 2019, p. 28)
- Include the year of publication in parentheses after the author's name and the page number(s) in separate parentheses at the end of the sentence.
- example: Rivera (2019) asserts that... (p. 28).
- Use the title of the source in place of the author's name. Titles of longer works such as books should be italicized. Titles of shorter works, such as a chapter from a book or an article from a magazine or journal should be placed in quotation marks. All titles should appear in standard title case (i.e. capitalize all major words).
- example: ("Using Citations," 2019, p. 28)
- Use the last names of both authors, separated by an ampersand (&)
- example: (Rivera & Rodriguez, 2019, p. 28)
- Use the last name of the first author followed by "et al."
- example: (Rivera et al., 2019, p. 28)
- Use the abbreviation n.d. (for "no date") in place of the year
- example: (Rivera, n.d., p. 28).
- Use the number of the paragraph the information came from preceded by the abbreviation para. in place of the page number
- example: (Rivera, 2019, para. 4)
Step 3: Double-check your paper and citation formatting
- The APA Manual dictates the rules for formatting your in-text citations, References page, and your final research paper.
- Review the links in the " APA Resources " box on this page to see formatting examples.
- Take the Quiz: Cite Right in APA Complete this online quiz after watching the video above. A certificate of completion will be emailed to you.
Use APA templates in Word and Google Docs
- When creating a new Microsoft Word document (or Google Doc), search for "APA" to see APA-style research paper templates.
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- Last Updated: Oct 11, 2023 12:14 PM
- URL: https://researchguides.elac.edu/Sociology
Sociology: Using APA style
- NoodleTools (go to guide) This link opens in a new window
Information for APA Style
This guide page links you to resources and information to help you with your Vol State assignments that require you to use American Psychological Association (APA ) citation and format style. Resources on this page, available both online and in print in the library, offer self-help assistance for using APA style to format your paper and create citations for use in your bibliography.
This page provides you with links to online resources , print copy of APA Publication Manual in the library , tips on using the Bedford Handbook , examples of formatting an APA paper , and a link to NoodleTools , an online citation management tool.
APA style: online resources
These free online resources (websites) are recommended resources to help you learn more about APA style. Find answers to your general questions.
- Academic Writer Tutorial: Basics of Seventh Edition APA Style Tutorial from APA Style Tutorials and Webinars page . Copyright 2020 American Psychological Association
- APA Style (from Purdue OWL) Purdue OWL is a trusted online academic source for citation styles and formatting.
- APA Style and Grammar Guidelines These style and grammar guidelines pages present information about APA Style as described in the Publication Manual of the APA 7th Edition.
- APA Style PowerPoint Presentations Need to prepare a PowerPoint presentation in APA style? Sideshow illustrates how to prepare a presentation. Created by Holgate Library, Bennett College for Women.
APA style: library resources
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the "official" guide to APA style. It is available in print format at all Vol State libraries.
Bedford Handbook: APA style
The Bedford Handbook includes information on writing in APA Style. In the 9th edition of the Handbook, the APA Style section starts in Chapter 58. The chapter number may vary depending on what edition you have. Included are documentation style, paper format and more.
APA style: formatting the paper
The Bedford Handbook has sample pages from an APA paper to help you with formatting. Or use one of these links for an online example.
- APA Sample Paper (from Purdue OWL) Sample paper demonstrating APA style formatting
- APA Style: Paper Format General guidelines on paper format. Sample papers available.
- APA Style: Sample Papers Page contains several sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style.
- Purdue OWL: Writing the Experimental Report How to write experimental reports in the social sciences.
APA style with NoodleTools
Select APA Style for your project in NoodleTools for a properly formatted References list and in-text citations. An Annotated Bibliography can also be created with NoodleTools.
NoodleTools only provides help with citations, not the paper itself. NOTE : As of May 14, 2020 NoodleTools was formatting citations based on 6th edition, not the updated 7th edition.
Need help? Questions?
The purpose of this guide is to provide information about Vol State resources and free online resources available to help students with the basics of using APA style for their research papers and essays.
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- Last Updated: Aug 10, 2023 11:39 AM
- URL: https://libguides.volstate.edu/sociology
SOC 010: Introduction to Sociology: APA Citation
- Find Articles
- Search the Web
- Cite your Sources
- APA Citation
- APA Citation 7th Ed.
The APA manual is the offical guide of APA citation formatting. You can find the manual at the reference desk and in the reference section of the library's collection.
Sample APA Paper
Formatting the References list
Watch the video below for tips on how to format your APA References page (6th ed.)
More Questions? APA Resources
Diana Hacker's APA Style: The Social Sciences has extensive information on in-text citation and creating a list of references .
The OWL at Purdue: APA Style Another source of information about in-text citation and creating a list of references .
BibMe A guided citation builder -- entering your citation information and BibMe will help you format your citation.
- APA research paper template This MS Word document template is pre-formatted according to proper APA standards. Just insert your information and you are ready to go!
The last page of your essay is called the "References" list. This is where you list the full citation of the sources you used to write your paper.
To create the citations for your sources:
1. Identify the type of source you are citing (book, magazine article, website, etc.) 2. Look up the APA format for that source type 3. Follow the format filling in the appropriate information from your source
This page will provide you the citation formats for APA . View this page for information on requirements for how the References page should be organized and formated .
In text citation
In addition to creating the References list, you are also required to include in text citation.
This is a brief citation within your research paper that is placed after information which is quoted or paraphrased from the sources you. In text citation for APA generally requires three pieces of information:
1. Author's last name 2. Year the source was published 3. The page number the information came from
The intext citation is often included at the end of a quote or paraphase and is formatted like this: (Author's Last Name, Year, p. #). However, the placement of the intext can change depending on whether or not you introduce the author in your quote or paraphrasing, but the same information for the citation is still required. See examples below. Example 1 (paraphrased) : Eighty percent of children in the US eat grapes (Jenkins, 2011, p. 3).
Example 2 (quoted) : Jenkins (2011) states, "In the United States, grapes are consumed by 80% of children" (p. 3). For more information on APA intext citation, click here .
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APA Citation Style: APA Sample Papers
- What is a Reference List
- Legal Citation
- Internet resources
- Unpublished or informally published works
- Audiovisual Media This link opens in a new window
- In-text citation
- Putting the Reference List together
- APA Annotated Bibliography
- APA Sample Papers
- APA Citation Exercises for Books
- APA Citation Exercises for Articles
- Automated Citation Tools
- Citing Open Educational Resources (OER)
- Citing A.I. Generated Content including ChatGPT
APA Research Paper
- APA Sample Research Paper 1-- 6th ed. Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006). This paper follows the style guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. (2010).
- APA Sample Research Paper 2 (alternative undergraduate formatting) -- 6th ed. Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006). This paper follows the style guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. (2010).
- APA Sample Empirical Research Paper (Psychology) -- 6th ed. Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013). This paper follows the style guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. (2010).
- APA Sample Research Paper, Qualitative Methodology (Sociology) -- 6th ed. Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013). This paper follows the style guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. (2010).
- APA Sample Business Proposal -- 6th ed. Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2011, 2007). This paper follows the style guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. (2010).
APA Reflective Essay
- APA Sample Reflective Essay in Education -- 6th ed. Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2011, 2007). This paper follows the style guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. (2010).
APA Literature Review Paper
- APA Sample Literature Review Paper -- 6th ed. Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2011, 2007).This paper follows the style guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. (2010).
APA Analysis Paper
- APA Sample Analysis (Sociology) Paper -- 6th ed. Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013). This paper follows the style guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. (2010).
- APA Sample Business Report -- 6th ed. Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2011, 2007). This paper follows the style guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. (2010).
- APA Sample Administrative Report -- 6th ed. Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2011). This paper follows the style guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. (2010).
- APA Sample Laboratory Report -- 6th ed. Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013). This paper follows the style guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. (2010).
APA Clinical Practice Paper
- APA Sample Nursing Practice Paper -- 6th ed. Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2011, 2007). This paper follows the style guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. (2010).
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- Last Updated: Sep 25, 2023 4:47 PM
- URL: https://guides.skylinecollege.edu/APA_CitationStyle
SOC 101 - Northwest - Introduction to Sociology: Formatting your paper in APA style
- Get Started
- Class Resources
- Popular vs Scholarly Articles
- Library Resources (articles, books, video/media)
- Streaming Video
- Sociology in the News
- APA 7 Style
APA has recommended journal article reporting standards that specify the formatting and structure of papers submitted for publication in journals. Your instructor may or may not want you to use this format for assignements so it is always a good idea to check to see if you instructor has any special instructions.
Papers written in APA format have the following recommended features (see right for examples):
- Preferred typeface in Times New Roman with a 12-point font size
- One inch margins at top, bottom, and sides of paper
- Use double-spacing throughout the paper, including the title, footnotes, quotations, references page, and figure captions.
- In Microsoft Word: Select all text > click Home tab > in Paragraph box, click Line Spacing icon > select 2.0
- Indent the first line of every paragraph, with the exception of the abstract, block quotations, and titles and headings.
- Each section (e.g. abstract, references, tables, figures, and appendices) should start on a separate page
- The title page includes the following elements
- Running head - abbreviated title placed in the top left corner in the header of every page
- Page number - placed in the top right corner in the header of every page
- Title - centered on top half of page
- Author of paper
- Author note - this may include the course, instructor, and date.
- This includes the following elements
- Running head - consistent with title and abstract pages
- Page number
- Abstract heading - centered at top of page
- Abstract text
BODY OF PAPER
- Title - centered at the top of page
Example of heading/title page
Sample heading page for a paper in APA format:
See more sample papers:
Sample APA paper from OWL (PDF) Sample APA paper from Diana Hacker (PDF)
Example of abstract page
- Last Updated: Nov 27, 2023 3:38 PM
- URL: https://libguides.pima.edu/nwsoc101
Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
APA Sample Paper
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
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Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
Media Files: APA Sample Student Paper , APA Sample Professional Paper
This resource is enhanced by Acrobat PDF files. Download the free Acrobat Reader
Note: The APA Publication Manual, 7 th Edition specifies different formatting conventions for student and professional papers (i.e., papers written for credit in a course and papers intended for scholarly publication). These differences mostly extend to the title page and running head. Crucially, citation practices do not differ between the two styles of paper.
However, for your convenience, we have provided two versions of our APA 7 sample paper below: one in student style and one in professional style.
Note: For accessibility purposes, we have used "Track Changes" to make comments along the margins of these samples. Those authored by [AF] denote explanations of formatting and [AWC] denote directions for writing and citing in APA 7.
APA 7 Student Paper:
Apa 7 professional paper:.
Sociology Class Supplement: Formatting Your Paper
- Formatting Your Paper
- In-Text Citations
- Direct Quotations
- Reference Page
- MARRIAGE & FAMILY - SOCI 2010
- Social Problems Research
- Music Research Paper
- Critical Thinking Cheatsheet
- Writing Your Sociology Research Paper
- Cultural Anthropology
Word 2013: How to Format APA Style
Watch this video, pausing and restarting, to help you format your paper in APA format. You may also use the guide below.
Step 1: Format your Word features
You will need to first set up these features in your Word Document.
Font : HOME tab > 12 point font size and Times New Roman. Other acceptable fonts are Calibri, Arial, and Georgia in 11 point size.
Margins: PAGE LAYOUT > Margins >Normal (Top 1”, Bottom 1”, Left 1”, Right 1”)
Spacing : Choose PAGE LAYOUT > Paragraph > tiny arrow in the far right bottom corner of that box. It should open the Paragraph Settings. Then, set the spacing to DOUBLE.
Step 2: Setting Up the Header and/or Page Numbers
The running head is not required in student papers, unless required by your professor or institution. However, manuscripts that are being submitted for publication do require a running head.
To add a running head to your paper, follow the steps below.
1. INSERT > Header > Choose the first one (Blank)
2. The Header will pop up. Above it, the DESIGN tab will be in green. With the DESIGN tab open, choose the HOME tab. Choose Times New Roman font in size 12.
3. Hit the CAPS LOCK button on your keyboard. Type TITLE OF YOUR PAPER . Unlock the CAPS LOCK function. NOTE: The title of your paper should not be longer than 50 characters; if it is a long title, you will need to shorten the title in the running head. (You may keep the title as long as you wish on the title category of the title page.)
4. Hit the TAB button until you move the cursor to the far right.
5. Click on the INSERT > Page number > Current Position > Plain Number (first option).
6. Click, hold, and drag to highlight all the text in your header, including the page number. Choose the HOME tab, then change the font style to Times New Roman and change the font size to 12.
7. Double click outside of your header and into the main part of the page.
If you do not need to set up the running head, you still need to insert page numbers.
1. In the INSERT tab, choose Page Number.
2. Click Top of page, then choose Plain Number 3 to add a page number to the top right corner of your page.
3. Click, hold, and drag to highlight all the text in your header, including the page number. Choose the HOME tab, then change the font style to Times New Roman and change the font size to 12.
4. Double click outside of your header and into the main part of the page.
Step 3: Format your Title Page
1. Place your title in the upper half of the title page. To achieve this, hit ENTER 4-5 times.
2. Go to HOME > Paragraph > Center button to center your title.
3. Still in the HOME tab, choose B to make the font boldface.
4. Type in your title, using appropriate capitalization. NOTE: Your title should not be longer than twelve words or contain abbreviations. It may be one or two lines.
5. Hit ENTER. In the HOME tab, choose B to make the font no longer boldface. Type in your name (first and last) using appropriate capitalization.
6. Hit ENTER. Type in the institution's name: Walters State Community College NOTE : Do NOT abbreviate.
7. Click INSERT tab > Page Break to move to the second page of your essay. (You can also just hit enter until you get to the next page.)
Step 4: Format your Abstract Page
NOTE: Abstracts are required for most scholarly journals, but not always for student assignments. If in doubt, ask your instructor whether an abstract is required for your assignment.
1. Your abstract should be the second page of your essay.
2. In the HOME tab, choose CENTER alignment in the paragraph box. Then click B to make the font boldface.
3. Type the word Abstract . NOTE: Do not use quotation marks, make the font italicized, or make it larger.
4. Hit Enter once. Choose HOME > Paragraph > Align Left. Still in the HOME tab, choose B to make the font no longer boldface. (This is the button that puts the cursor back to the left side of the page.) DO NOT INDENT. Type a brief, objective summary of your essay that should be no longer than 250 words.
Step 5: Format your First Page of Essay
To format the first page of your essay, follow these instructions.
1. INSERT> Page Break to get to the next page of your essay, or click enter until you get to the next page.
2. Go to Home > Paragraph >Align Center. Choose B to make the font boldfaced. Type the full title, using appropriate capitalization, on the first line.
3. Hit enter. Read A & B below. a. If you are using a heading for the first part of your paper (e.g. Review of Literature, Methodology, etc.), then you will need to type your heading using the following format: Bold, center-aligned, with appropriate capitalization. See 3.03 (page 62) in the APA Publication Manual if you have multiple levels of headings.
b. If you are not using a heading, or you are ready to type your essay, got to HOME> Paragraph > Align left. Still in the HOME tab, click B to make the font no longer boldface. (This is the button that puts the cursor back to the left side of the page.) Then, indent and begin typing your essay.
Step 7: Format your Reference Page
To format your References page in Word, please follow these directions.
1. After you have finished your essay, click INSERT > Page Break.
2. Center your cursor. Choose B in the HOME tab to make the font boldface. Type Reference if your essay contains only one citation. Type References if your essay contains more than one distinct citation.
3. Hit ENTER. Choose HOME > Paragraph > Align Left. (This is the button that puts the cursor back to the left side of the page.)
4. Choose PAGE LAYOUT > Paragraph > tiny arrow in the far right bottom corner of that box. It should open the Paragraph Settings.
5. In the Paragraph Settings box, choose Indentation > Special > Drop down the box to HANGING. (Below is what you should see.)
6. In the HOME tab, choose B to make the font no longer boldface.
7. Type in your reference list in alphabetical order by last name, following APA style rules. Make sure that you double space between each entry (Do NOT hit enter more than once at the end of each entry. You should not be spacing more than the double-space that the computer does for you.)
APA Publication Manual, 7th Edition (2019) was consulted in creating this guide.
Questions or Comments
*If you need further assistance formatting your essay, please see/call/email a librarian or visit the Writing Lab.
Library Reference Desk: 423-585-6946
Email: [email protected]
Please email found errors to [email protected].
Links to Helpful Formatting Sites
- Purdue OWL Formatting & Style Guide Information on general formatting in APA 7th edition from the Purdue OWL.
- Quick Answers-APA Formatting Created by the APA, this website gives in-depth instructions and clear visuals discussing everything from running heads, margins, tables, and quotes.
- Sample Papers Sample papers formatted using APA 7th edition.
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- Last Updated: Nov 1, 2023 10:17 AM
- URL: https://library.ws.edu/sociology
Sociology Resource Guide: APA-7 Citation Style
- Books & eBooks
- Streaming Media
- Reference Resources
- Evaluating Sources
- Finding Scholarly Sources
- Sociology A.A. Degree
- APA-7 Citation Style
- Video Tutorials This link opens in a new window
Welcome to the APA-7 Citation Resource!
Paper Setup References List In-Text Citations
APA Style Resources
The following resources contain examples and/or information to assist in preparing a research paper in APA Citation Style.
OWL Citation Help
- Excelsior OWL Valuable information and resources to help you create your citations.
- APA 7 Video Tutorials Check out these step-by-step videos to help you set up your paper, create your reference list, and in-text citations.
- APA Tutorials and Webinars Check out these videos and webinars from the APA website to help you create your APA 7 citations.
- APA Title Page Resource Guide This source will give you all the information you need to create the Title Page for your APA style paper.
- Paper Set-up Checklist Use this checklist to make sure you have everything you need to set up your APA paper.
- Paper Set-up Checklist Printout A printout version of the APA paper checklist.
- Citing Websites in APA 7 Use this handout to help you create citations for websites.
- APA Style Formatting and Citing from D2L Use this document to see a title page example, create the proper headings in your paper, and cite sources from your class D2L page.
- APA "And the Band Played On" Scene Log
The APA Citation Style
This resource guide will focus on the 7th edition of the APA publication style developed by the American Psychological Association, which is used by the Social Sciences and other curricular areas.
Take a look at the links on the left for examples of APA 7 in-text citations, reference pages, and some useful sites and tutorials.
Resources from APA
- APA Inclusive Language Guide View and download the updated APA guidelines for inclusive language
- APA Citation Guide Use this resource to break down the parts of a reference page citation for three commonly cited formats: journal article, book, and chapter in an edited book.
- Sample Paper This example paper will give you a visual of what your finished paper will look like, from title page to references. It also includes notes to identify key parts of your paper.
- Student Paper Sample Download this word document to see what a finished APA style paper looks like.
Setting up an APA Paper
Before you begin writing your research paper, it is important to have it correctly formatted following APA guidelines. This includes setting up a title page, correcting line spacing, text font, and margins in a paper.
To set up your paper for APA formatting you will complete the following:
- Make sure the margins in your paper are set to 1 inch
- Use one of the approved APA fonts: 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode, 12-point Times New Roman, or 11-point Georgia.
- Set the spacing in your paper to Double.
- Create a title page.
To create a title page for your paper, or to see a visual of any of the above formatting guidelines, check out the library's APA 7 video tutorials.
The Set-up guide for an academic paper prepared by HCC Learning Support Center staff is a great tool to help you step-by-step through the process of setting up your document. Be sure to see the APA-specific instructions on the last page. We recommend you use these guidelines to set up your paper before you begin writing.
Citations are tricky, and there are lots of questions you may have when creating your citations. This guide covers the basics of APA, but for more detailed questions about specific citations, make sure to check out the resources along the left. The Excelsior OWL citation guide is especially helpful for creating citations for different sources.
The APA References list
Once you have completed your research and have gathered the information you would like to use to write your paper, your next step should be to create the list of the resources you will use in your paper. This list is called a Reference List and includes any source (publication, video, lecture, etc.) that you are using information from in your paper. It is very important that you cite sources in your paper because you want to show where you are getting your information from and avoid Plagiarism!
General formatting tips when creating your references page:
- The references page will begin on a separate page at the end of your research paper.
- Each citation will be in alphabetical order based on the authors' last names. If there are not authors, you will alphabetize by the source's title.
- Double-space all entries.
- Include a hanging-indent with each citation. To learn how to create a hanging indent, watch the second part of the library's APA Citation Video Tutorials.
- Include the word References at the top of the page, centered on the page and in bold text.
For help with creating citations, or how to set up your references page, watch the library's APA Citations Video Tutorials!
Examples of Common Citations
Use the examples shown below to help you format correct citations for the most popular sources.
Scholarly article from a database:
Elements : Author's last name, Author's first and middle initials. (Date). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number (issue number, if any), Page numbers.
Mershon, D.H. (1998, November). Star trek on the brain: Alien minds, human minds. American Scientist, 86 (6), 585.
Elements : Author's last name, Author's first and middle initials. (Date published). Title of webpage. Website Name . URL.
Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist. Medium . https://humanparts.medium.com/laziness-does-not-exist-3af27e312d01
Book by multiple authors (less than 20):
Elements : Author's last name, Author's first and middle initials. (Year of Publication). Title of boo k. Publisher.
Rivano, N. S., Hoson, A., & Stallings, B. (2001). Regional integration and economic development . Palgrave.
Social Media Post (Instagram):
Elements : Author's last name, Author's first and middle initials. [@username]. (Year, Month, Day published). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [description of type of post]. Site name. URL.
Sulic, L. [@lukasulicworld]. (2019, December 31). We wish you a happy new year! [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B6vTyaZHNU9/?igshid=141g9y12b4gfn
For more examples of how to cite specific formats, or more specific help with citations, visit the Excelsior Online Writing Lab for detailed descriptions!
In-text citations are the second way you will cite your sources in a research paper. Unlike the citations found in the References page, in-text citations are shorter and appear in the body of the text. Any time you use information from a source (whether you paraphrase it or use a direct quotation), you must include an in-text citation. So you will have multiple in-text citations for one source.
APA in-text citations will appear in parentheses within the paper you are writing, and will appear at the end of the sentence where the source is being cited. You will include only the author's last name, followed by the date of publication. If a source has two authors, list both names separated by an ampersand (&). If there are more than two authors, list only the first author's last name followed by the phrase 'et al'.
In-text citation examples:
Source with three or more authors:.
The concept of social class is rapidly becoming obsolete (Calvert et al., 1987).
Source with one author, using a signal phrase (a signal phrase uses part of the citation in the body of the text):
Calvert (1982) argued that it is impossible to measure social class.
Source with two authors:
Two techniques that have been associated with reduced stress and increased relaxation in psychotherapy contexts are guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation (McGuigan & Lehrer, 2007).
For more examples of creating in-text citations, check out the library's video tutorials or the Excelsior OWL citation page for help! Or explore the resources on this guide for more information!
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- Last Updated: Nov 27, 2023 8:30 AM
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SOC 101: Intro to Sociology
- Books & eBooks
- Journal Articles
- APA Citation
APA Style Handbooks
APA Citation Overview
American Psychological Association (APA) Style is an editorial style, or rules that a publisher uses to ensure consistent presentation of written material. Citing your sources in APA style gives credit to the works of others and helps your readers go back and find the information you present.
- Basic APA components: Author. (Year of publication). Title . Publisher.
- APA is typically used for social or behavioral sciences writing.
- The key attribute of APA is the date of publication is closer to the beginning of the citation, since researchers often publish their work year after year, and there are often several articles attributed to the same author over period of time.
For more in-depth information about APA Style, you can check out the following resources:
- Purdue OWL APA Style Guide
- APA Manual of Publication (7th Edition) on reserve at the Spalding Library Information Desk
- Citing Sources tab on the Writing Center's homepage
See below for an interactive tutorial on APA citation and a sample paper formatted in APA style.
- APA Style Guide This document provides information and examples for citing sources in APA format.
- Getting Started with APA citation [tutorial] This tutorial serves as an introduction to citation according to APA formatting and style guidelines. It covers the basic components of creating references and in-text citations for a variety of source types.
Some databases and websites will auto-generate citations for you. This is a great starting place for a citation, but they are not always accurate . Check an auto-generated citation with a stylebook or guide before submitting a paper.
Some databases, like Academic Search Complete , include a "cite" feature that will auto-generate APA, MLA, Chicago and other citations.
If there isn't an auto-generated citation within a database, try one of these free citation generator cites. You can also ask a librarian or the writing center !
Generating a Citation (1:10)
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- Last Updated: Jul 14, 2023 2:37 PM
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