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Licensing and Business Models
by Alberto Onetti
2008, Economics and Quantitative Methods
License affects software companies' business activities. While proprietary software vendors create custom licenses, open source companies have less flexibility. The Open Source Initiative (OSI) defines a list of 72 licenses as open source (“OSI approved”). For a project ...
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Wolfgang Leister , Nils Christophersen , Simen Heggestøyl , Daniel Rødskog
This document is the compendium for the course INF 5780: Open source, open collaboration and innovation at the Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, written for the autumn semester of 2012. This multi-disciplinary compendium presents aspects of commons-based peer production, free and open source software, open licenses, open standards, and how to extract value from these phenomena in open innovation and business models.
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Free and open source software (FOSS) development has become a huge success. A significant part of that success has been the Free Software Foundation’s (FSF) GNU General Public License (GPL), which governs a large majority of FOSS projects worldwide. After nearly sixteen years, the FSF recently updated the GPL (GPL3) to deal with changes in the software world. Two of the primary changes GPL3 deals with are software patents and digital rights management (DRM), and these license changes in particular have sparked intense debates within FOSS world. Pragmatists, and those more closely aligned with the Open Source Initiative’s (OSI) approach, have fretted that GPL3 could balkanize FOSS development and cause large-scale corporate withdrawal from the FOSS world. The FSF, meanwhile, believes GPL3 is absolutely necessary to preserve FOSS momentum in the modern world. Who is right? While GPL3 and its patent and DRM provisions will certainly result in social and legal complications, its unifyin...
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Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) is characterised by a specific programming and development paradigm. The availability and freedom of use of source code are at the core of this paradigm, and are the prerequisites for FLOSS features. Unfortunately, the fundamental role of code is often ignored among those who decide the software purchases for Canadian public agencies. Source code availability and the connected freedoms are often seen as unrelated and accidental aspects, and the only real advantage acknowledged, which is the absence of royalty fees, becomes paramount. In this paper we discuss some relevant legal issues and explain why public administrations should choose FLOSS for their technological infrastructure. We also present the results of a survey regarding the penetration and awareness of FLOSS usage into the Government of Canada. The data demonstrates that the Government of Canada shows no enforced policy regarding the implementation of a specific technological framew...
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The global energy system is undergoing a major transition, and in energy planning and decision-making across governments, industry and academia, models play a crucial role. Because of their policy relevance and contested nature, the transparency and open availability of energy models and data are of particular importance. Here we provide a practical how-to guide based on the collective experience of members of the Open Energy Modelling Initiative (Openmod). We discuss key steps to consider when opening code and data, including determining intellectual property ownership, choosing a licence and appropriate modelling languages, distributing code and data, and providing support and building communities. After illustrating these decisions with examples and lessons learned from the community, we conclude that even though individual researchers' choices are important, institutional changes are still also necessary for more openness and transparency in energy research.
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This document explains the basic concepts related to software and hardware licenses, and it summarizes the most popular licenses that are currently used for hardware projects. Two case studies of hardware projects at different levels of abstraction are also presented, together with a discussion of license applicability, commercial issues, code protection, and related concerns.This paper intends to help the reader understand how to release open hardware with the most appropriate license, and to answer questions that are of current interest. We have been mainly motivated by the growing influence of the open RISC-V ISA, but trying to address a wider hardware point of view.
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Crowdsensing and personal data markets that have emerged around it have rapidly gained momentum in parallel with the appearance of mobile devices. Collecting information via mobile sensors and the applications relying on these, the privacy of mobile users can be threatened, especially in the case of location-related data. In 2015, a research project called MyGeoTrust was initiated to investigate this issue. One aim of the project was to study the potential business models for a trusted, open-source crowdsourcing platform. This study, carried within the MyGeoTrust project, reviews existing literature about business models, location-based services, and open-source software development. It then investigates the relationship between these topics and mobile crowdsensing. As a whole, this thesis provides an overview on the development of location-based services, as well as the current trends and business models in crowdsensing. The empirical part of the thesis employs embedded case study ...
Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS 2013). Springer Verlag, 2013
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Open source tools have recently reached a level of maturity which makes them suitable for building large-scale real-world systems. At the same time, the field of machine learning has developed a large body of powerful learning algorithms for diverse applications. However, the true potential of these methods is not used, since existing implementations are not openly shared, resulting in software with low usability, and weak interoperability. We argue that this situation can be significantly improved by increasing incentives for researchers to ...