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Sat / act prep online guides and tips, 113 great research paper topics.
One of the hardest parts of writing a research paper can be just finding a good topic to write about. Fortunately we've done the hard work for you and have compiled a list of 113 interesting research paper topics. They've been organized into ten categories and cover a wide range of subjects so you can easily find the best topic for you.
In addition to the list of good research topics, we've included advice on what makes a good research paper topic and how you can use your topic to start writing a great paper.
What Makes a Good Research Paper Topic?
Not all research paper topics are created equal, and you want to make sure you choose a great topic before you start writing. Below are the three most important factors to consider to make sure you choose the best research paper topics.
#1: It's Something You're Interested In
A paper is always easier to write if you're interested in the topic, and you'll be more motivated to do in-depth research and write a paper that really covers the entire subject. Even if a certain research paper topic is getting a lot of buzz right now or other people seem interested in writing about it, don't feel tempted to make it your topic unless you genuinely have some sort of interest in it as well.
#2: There's Enough Information to Write a Paper
Even if you come up with the absolute best research paper topic and you're so excited to write about it, you won't be able to produce a good paper if there isn't enough research about the topic. This can happen for very specific or specialized topics, as well as topics that are too new to have enough research done on them at the moment. Easy research paper topics will always be topics with enough information to write a full-length paper.
Trying to write a research paper on a topic that doesn't have much research on it is incredibly hard, so before you decide on a topic, do a bit of preliminary searching and make sure you'll have all the information you need to write your paper.
#3: It Fits Your Teacher's Guidelines
Don't get so carried away looking at lists of research paper topics that you forget any requirements or restrictions your teacher may have put on research topic ideas. If you're writing a research paper on a health-related topic, deciding to write about the impact of rap on the music scene probably won't be allowed, but there may be some sort of leeway. For example, if you're really interested in current events but your teacher wants you to write a research paper on a history topic, you may be able to choose a topic that fits both categories, like exploring the relationship between the US and North Korea. No matter what, always get your research paper topic approved by your teacher first before you begin writing.
113 Good Research Paper Topics
Below are 113 good research topics to help you get you started on your paper. We've organized them into ten categories to make it easier to find the type of research paper topics you're looking for.
- Discuss the main differences in art from the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance .
- Analyze the impact a famous artist had on the world.
- How is sexism portrayed in different types of media (music, film, video games, etc.)? Has the amount/type of sexism changed over the years?
- How has the music of slaves brought over from Africa shaped modern American music?
- How has rap music evolved in the past decade?
- How has the portrayal of minorities in the media changed?
- What have been the impacts of China's one child policy?
- How have the goals of feminists changed over the decades?
- How has the Trump presidency changed international relations?
- Analyze the history of the relationship between the United States and North Korea.
- What factors contributed to the current decline in the rate of unemployment?
- What have been the impacts of states which have increased their minimum wage?
- How do US immigration laws compare to immigration laws of other countries?
- How have the US's immigration laws changed in the past few years/decades?
- How has the Black Lives Matter movement affected discussions and view about racism in the US?
- What impact has the Affordable Care Act had on healthcare in the US?
- What factors contributed to the UK deciding to leave the EU (Brexit)?
- What factors contributed to China becoming an economic power?
- Discuss the history of Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies (some of which tokenize the S&P 500 Index on the blockchain) .
- Do students in schools that eliminate grades do better in college and their careers?
- Do students from wealthier backgrounds score higher on standardized tests?
- Do students who receive free meals at school get higher grades compared to when they weren't receiving a free meal?
- Do students who attend charter schools score higher on standardized tests than students in public schools?
- Do students learn better in same-sex classrooms?
- How does giving each student access to an iPad or laptop affect their studies?
- What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Montessori Method ?
- Do children who attend preschool do better in school later on?
- What was the impact of the No Child Left Behind act?
- How does the US education system compare to education systems in other countries?
- What impact does mandatory physical education classes have on students' health?
- Which methods are most effective at reducing bullying in schools?
- Do homeschoolers who attend college do as well as students who attended traditional schools?
- Does offering tenure increase or decrease quality of teaching?
- How does college debt affect future life choices of students?
- Should graduate students be able to form unions?
- What are different ways to lower gun-related deaths in the US?
- How and why have divorce rates changed over time?
- Is affirmative action still necessary in education and/or the workplace?
- Should physician-assisted suicide be legal?
- How has stem cell research impacted the medical field?
- How can human trafficking be reduced in the United States/world?
- Should people be able to donate organs in exchange for money?
- Which types of juvenile punishment have proven most effective at preventing future crimes?
- Has the increase in US airport security made passengers safer?
- Analyze the immigration policies of certain countries and how they are similar and different from one another.
- Several states have legalized recreational marijuana. What positive and negative impacts have they experienced as a result?
- Do tariffs increase the number of domestic jobs?
- Which prison reforms have proven most effective?
- Should governments be able to censor certain information on the internet?
- Which methods/programs have been most effective at reducing teen pregnancy?
- What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Keto diet?
- How effective are different exercise regimes for losing weight and maintaining weight loss?
- How do the healthcare plans of various countries differ from each other?
- What are the most effective ways to treat depression ?
- What are the pros and cons of genetically modified foods?
- Which methods are most effective for improving memory?
- What can be done to lower healthcare costs in the US?
- What factors contributed to the current opioid crisis?
- Analyze the history and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic .
- Are low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets more effective for weight loss?
- How much exercise should the average adult be getting each week?
- Which methods are most effective to get parents to vaccinate their children?
- What are the pros and cons of clean needle programs?
- How does stress affect the body?
- Discuss the history of the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.
- What were the causes and effects of the Salem Witch Trials?
- Who was responsible for the Iran-Contra situation?
- How has New Orleans and the government's response to natural disasters changed since Hurricane Katrina?
- What events led to the fall of the Roman Empire?
- What were the impacts of British rule in India ?
- Was the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki necessary?
- What were the successes and failures of the women's suffrage movement in the United States?
- What were the causes of the Civil War?
- How did Abraham Lincoln's assassination impact the country and reconstruction after the Civil War?
- Which factors contributed to the colonies winning the American Revolution?
- What caused Hitler's rise to power?
- Discuss how a specific invention impacted history.
- What led to Cleopatra's fall as ruler of Egypt?
- How has Japan changed and evolved over the centuries?
- What were the causes of the Rwandan genocide ?
- Why did Martin Luther decide to split with the Catholic Church?
- Analyze the history and impact of a well-known cult (Jonestown, Manson family, etc.)
- How did the sexual abuse scandal impact how people view the Catholic Church?
- How has the Catholic church's power changed over the past decades/centuries?
- What are the causes behind the rise in atheism/ agnosticism in the United States?
- What were the influences in Siddhartha's life resulted in him becoming the Buddha?
- How has media portrayal of Islam/Muslims changed since September 11th?
- How has the earth's climate changed in the past few decades?
- How has the use and elimination of DDT affected bird populations in the US?
- Analyze how the number and severity of natural disasters have increased in the past few decades.
- Analyze deforestation rates in a certain area or globally over a period of time.
- How have past oil spills changed regulations and cleanup methods?
- How has the Flint water crisis changed water regulation safety?
- What are the pros and cons of fracking?
- What impact has the Paris Climate Agreement had so far?
- What have NASA's biggest successes and failures been?
- How can we improve access to clean water around the world?
- Does ecotourism actually have a positive impact on the environment?
- Should the US rely on nuclear energy more?
- What can be done to save amphibian species currently at risk of extinction?
- What impact has climate change had on coral reefs?
- How are black holes created?
- Are teens who spend more time on social media more likely to suffer anxiety and/or depression?
- How will the loss of net neutrality affect internet users?
- Analyze the history and progress of self-driving vehicles.
- How has the use of drones changed surveillance and warfare methods?
- Has social media made people more or less connected?
- What progress has currently been made with artificial intelligence ?
- Do smartphones increase or decrease workplace productivity?
- What are the most effective ways to use technology in the classroom?
- How is Google search affecting our intelligence?
- When is the best age for a child to begin owning a smartphone?
- Has frequent texting reduced teen literacy rates?
How to Write a Great Research Paper
Even great research paper topics won't give you a great research paper if you don't hone your topic before and during the writing process. Follow these three tips to turn good research paper topics into great papers.
#1: Figure Out Your Thesis Early
Before you start writing a single word of your paper, you first need to know what your thesis will be. Your thesis is a statement that explains what you intend to prove/show in your paper. Every sentence in your research paper will relate back to your thesis, so you don't want to start writing without it!
As some examples, if you're writing a research paper on if students learn better in same-sex classrooms, your thesis might be "Research has shown that elementary-age students in same-sex classrooms score higher on standardized tests and report feeling more comfortable in the classroom."
If you're writing a paper on the causes of the Civil War, your thesis might be "While the dispute between the North and South over slavery is the most well-known cause of the Civil War, other key causes include differences in the economies of the North and South, states' rights, and territorial expansion."
#2: Back Every Statement Up With Research
Remember, this is a research paper you're writing, so you'll need to use lots of research to make your points. Every statement you give must be backed up with research, properly cited the way your teacher requested. You're allowed to include opinions of your own, but they must also be supported by the research you give.
#3: Do Your Research Before You Begin Writing
You don't want to start writing your research paper and then learn that there isn't enough research to back up the points you're making, or, even worse, that the research contradicts the points you're trying to make!
Get most of your research on your good research topics done before you begin writing. Then use the research you've collected to create a rough outline of what your paper will cover and the key points you're going to make. This will help keep your paper clear and organized, and it'll ensure you have enough research to produce a strong paper.
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Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. She has taught English and biology in several countries.
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Ultimate List of 265 Research Topics for College Students
How often do you freeze up after receiving an assignment to write a research paper? We know how tough it can be, particularly in a flood of possible research topics for students. Choosing that one idea from plenty of research proposal topics for college students is the foremost step in any academic project.
Lack of inspiration? We made an ultimate list of research topics for college students. You will find art, biology, social science, education, and even more fun research topics for college students. Don’t scour the tons of outdated or dull topics anymore. A much better alternative would be to look at essay examples instead.
What’s more, we prepared three main steps to start converting the chosen topic into a successful research paper. Besides, we will dispel any uncertainty in research importance.
Is Research Important?
- Art Research Topics
- Biology Research Topics
- Educational Topics
- Environmental Topics
Gender Research Topics
- Law Research Topics
Literature Research Topics
- Music Research Topics
- Psychology Topics
- Religion Research Topics
- Science Research Topics
- Social Science Topics
Sports Research Paper Topics
How to start a research paper, top 10 research topics for college students:.
- Human impact on biodiversity loss
- Internet’s effect on freedom of speech
- Is isolation a cause of child abuse?
- Negative effect of pop culture trends on youth
- Pros and cons of free education
- Is AI a threat to humans?
- The impact of modern technology on ecology
- Can nuclear power be safe?
- Economic impact of GMO food
- Negative effect of climate change on economy
Before getting into the importance of research, let’s understand what kind of work it is.
Research is an analysis aimed at discovering of new facts or revising existing theories. It consists of several steps. The most common are:
- Research methodology setting
- Research problem statement
- Data extraction and gathering
- Assessment of the gathered data
- Conclusions summarizing
What Are the Purposes of Research?
The intentions are countless, but here are the general ones:
✨ to accept or reject a hypothesis; ✨ to gather information on a phenomenon or subject; ✨ to initiate further research or to “dig deeper.”
Why Is It important?
Research makes our life easier. The underlying cause of new discoveries is to understand how things work. If we acquire that data, we’ll know how to get practical value out of it.
Think of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. As we meet our deficiency needs, its level grows. At the same time, the demand for new knowledge increases. That is why discovering new is a never-ending process.
That is all clear. But you may ask: why do I need research skills in my day-to-day life?
After graduation, you will most likely still need research skills at work. No matter what the industry is. Either you decided to excel in science or form a hi-tech startup. If you want to achieve success, you should have strong research skills.
All in all, having research skills is one of the core elements of personal and social growth. It helps to generate additional findings or set new questions around existing knowledge.
Now let’s move on to the list of research topics.
Art Research Paper Topics
We’ll start from the study area, which is difficult to measure. We talk about art. For some, it may seem easier to study than exact sciences. But still, the number of questions about various genres, forms, and art styles is beyond imagination.
Why should we not overestimate the importance of studying art ?
Art is not just something for connoisseurs. It has always been and still is vital for the whole of society. What affected humanity’s development? Of course, the way people express their everyday life or feelings through art.
Besides, thanks to art, we can see things from different perspectives. It makes us open-minded and helps to develop critical thinking. And, most apparently, art fills our lives with beauty and elegance.
Art is so diverse that students may struggle to choose from a myriad of research areas. Here are some of the hottest art research paper topics for you:
- The influence of the internet and social networks on art.
- Researching of Greek mythological painting.
- The comparison of modern art in the United States and Europe.
- The representation of art in Lars von Trier’s films.
- The influence of African-American cultural heritage on modern American art.
- What are the features of contemporary art ?
- Frida Khalo and her sources of inspiration.
- The role of Kazimir Malevich in abstract art development.
- Art in the early renaissance and today’s European society .
- Art therapy techniques: what are they and are they effective?
- The difference of women’s representation in ancient and modern art .
- Comparative analysis of modern and classic cubism .
- The history and main features of abstract expressionism .
- The relationship between art and globalization .
- The influence of art on the fashion industry in Japan.
Biology Research Topics for College Students
Let’s move on to biology. This science deals with vital processes of living organisms. We’ve gathered a list of topics from different biology fields. You’ll find essay ideas from the fields of botany and zoology to genetics.
Research in biology has one distinctive feature. It is the use of research lab equipment. If you don’t use it and base your research on other sources — make sure they are credible.
What are the attributes of a research paper in biology?
Molecular biology, cellular, and other categories of biology imply accurate measurements. There is no place for mistakes here. Otherwise, the relevance of research results would be insignificant. A researcher should be scrupulous in calculations and statements.
So, feel free to pick up any topics from the list below. Study them thoroughly!
- The impact of global warming on marine life.
- Extensive research of photosynthesis aspects and functions.
- Thyroid hormones and their impact on the female body.
- DNA structure, modifications, and genetic disorders .
- Is it ethical to test cosmetics on animals ?
- The ability of living organisms to adapt to changing environments.
- The need for the protection of rare and endangered species .
- The role of sustainability in biology.
- Advantages and disadvantages of organic farming .
- The role of neurobiology in artificial intelligence development.
- The discovery and impact of Darwin’s theory .
- The discovery, history, and importance of vaccination .
- The role of microbes and microbiology in health .
- Neurobiology and its association with emotional trauma .
- Biology: mechanical signals regulating development .
- Cultural variations in environment and biology: AIDS .
- A review of the ecology and biology of the whale shark.
- Performance and quality assessment of methods for detection of point mutations.
- Optical imaging techniques in cell biology .
- Computational methods in molecular biology .
Educational Research Topics for Students
What can be trickier than studying how to study? Education research papers evolve at a rapid pace as the world changes every day. That is why new techniques and approaches are in demand.
No other discipline will answer the milestone questions as well as education. And the most important is about human nature.
What can make a precious contribution to society? The definite answer is — driving innovations in studying .
Want to remain in history as an author of a revolutionary breakthrough? Explore educational research paper topics for college students:
- Language distribution issues in bilingual schooling .
- Critical thinking as the primary goal of the educational process.
- Role-playing games as a learning tool .
- Pay-for-performance scheme for teachers .
- Moving from compliance to performance-based schools .
- Bilingual learning: advantages and disadvantages.
- Educational approaches in retrospective.
- Aspects of multicultural educational practices .
- The importance of inclusivity in teaching .
- Popular modern educational techniques: a comparison.
- Arithmetical problem-solving difficulties .
- Learning methods for blind children.
- The role of technology in lesson planning .
- Role-playing as an educational practice.
- The need for parents’ involvement in the educational process.
- Tools to develop the best teaching strategy .
- The efficiency of gamification .
- Individual approach to students.
- Popular educational mobile apps.
- Peculiarities of teaching disabled children .
- Same-gender and mixed-gender schools: a comparative analysis.
- Understanding the causes of school violence and bullying.
- The importance of sex education at schools.
- The educational system in America : problems and prospects.
- Cloud computing in educational institutions: an impact on the educational environment.
- Ethical behavior in higher educational institutions.
- Cooperation of educational institutions and businesses: successful cases.
- Information technology as a means of educational process improvement.
- Homeschooling and its influence on communication skills.
- Comparative analysis of distance learning and face-to-face education efficiency.
- Individualized versus group learning.
- The necessity of higher education for all students.
- Best practices of top higher education establishments.
- Peculiarities of teacher’s education in America.
- Preschool education versus tertiary education .
- Teacher as a researcher. Cross-age peer tutoring .
- Multicultural and monocultural education programs: a comparison.
- Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of tablets and printed textbooks .
- Should education be free?
- Education unification: reasons to apply in high schools.
Environmental Research Topics
Our day-to-day comfort is an inherent cause of environmental problems. We may drive a car and have no idea how we harm nature.
Eco activism is a growing trend. Ecology issues acquired a more frequent and lucid coverage. Regardless, people tend to overlook the environment. They got the idea that we should protect our planet, but not all of them are ready to act.
That is why we need to be aware of more facts and measures. This can’t be obtained without decent environmental science research papers.
Do you want to be a part of it? Use our list of environmental research topics for college students:
- Risks of climate change and global warming .
- Aspects and perspectives of Kyoto protocol .
- Green hydrogen in automotive industry : is it a great alternative?
- The origin of the carbon tax .
- Amazonian deforestation , its causes, and trends.
- The greenhouse effect : process, components, and risks.
- Types of pollution : air, water, and soil.
- Alternative energy in Europe.
- Water scarcity in the Middle East .
- Wind energy as an alternative source .
- Benefits of sustainable technology and living .
- Vulnerability of hazardville to flooding disasters .
- Environment protection authority and chemical waste .
- Population control in China.
- Geoengineering principles.
- Acid rains : the cause and current measures.
- Radioactive waste disposal.
- The protection of wildlife .
- E-mobility as an environmental protection measure.
- Ecological conservation.
Gender roles and aspects are one of the central social questions nowadays. Studies in this field are as relevant and necessary as never before. It pushes our society forward, eliminating gender inequality and discrimination.
Do you want to contribute to gender knowledge but don’t know where to start? Here is the list of most relevant gender studies essay topics:
- Public policy analysis on gender inequality in education in South Sudan.
- The history of gender concept.
- Gender imbalance in the developing countries.
- Sex reassignment in treating gender dysphoria : a way to psychological well-being.
- Employee issues: gender discrimination, sexual harassment , discrimination.
- Gender roles in couples and sex stereotypes in society.
- The diversity of gender and sexual orientation identities of transgender individuals.
- MeToo movement as sexual harassment fight measure.
- Feminism : the contraception movement in Canada.
- Maternity and paternity leaves .
- The correlation between gender and cognitive abilities .
- Transgender people and healthcare barriers .
- Race and gender in public relations .
- Gender stereotyping in American media .
- The health and well-being of LGBTQA+ young people in Australia.
- Cancel culture in America.
- Transgender healthcare issues.
- Transgender person in professional sports.
- Female genital mutilation.
- Gender roles in media.
Law Research Paper Topics
We cannot imagine a civilized society without law. Even though the fundamental rights and obligations in different countries are mostly similar, there is still a great scope of differences to research.
We gathered the list of law research paper topics to explore:
- Human rights violations in CIS countries.
- A self-enforcing model of corporate law .
- Corporate strategies and environmental regulations : organizing framework.
- The benefits of decriminalization .
- International criminal law and measures .
- Discrimination in the workplace in legal practice.
- Welfare legislation for families .
- Intellectual property law: copyright law, trademark law, patent law.
- Enforcement of civil rights law in private workplaces.
- The establishment of foreign and international law in American courts. A procedural overview.
- Family law : spousal support after a divorce in Canada.
- Employment law and workplace relations in Saudi Arabia.
- Applicable real estate laws and policies for sustainable development in South Africa.
- Retrospective of the immigration crisis in Europe.
- The need for a domestic violence law in Russian Federation.
- Religious crimes and religious laws.
- Terrorism in different countries’ law systems.
- Grievance procedure in the European court of human rights.
- Cybercrimes in legal practice.
- Human trafficking and slavery in the modern world.
When it comes to literature, there is a vast ocean of ideas to research. The topics can be classified into a large number of categories. Those can be literature genres, awards, trends in literature, different social aspects of literature, etc.
To make finding the best fit easier, we conducted a list of the world literature research topics:
- Golden Age writers and their impact on literature.
- Feminist literature authors.
- Y. Zamyatin’s “We” as the origin of dystopian literature.
- Trends of modern literature .
- Ancient Greece literature.
- Is best seller always good literature?
- Tricksters in literature.
- Post-modernism in literature .
- Sexual violence in the “Handmaid’s Tale” by Atwood .
- Children literature.
- The works of J. D. Salinger .
- Social perception of modern literature .
- Philosophy, literature, and religion in society: a comparative analysis of the impact on human life.
- The portrayal of racism in the literature of the 21st century.
- Censorship in literature.
- Professional literature trends.
- Central themes in American literature .
- The impact of digitalization on literature.
- The role of the main character in literature.
- Literature: print versus digitalized?
Music Research Paper Topics
Research is something we can do not only in astronomy or molecular biology. We need it in the music too. Music shapes our life in a way we can’t even imagine. It’s a tremendous social and cultural phenomenon to explore.
These are 20 potential topics for your research in the music industry :
- The effect of music on a human brain .
- The evolution of rap music .
- TikTok as the most efficient promotional channel for new music.
- The origin of music theory.
- The music industry and information technology .
- The influence of Kanye West performances on the music industry.
- Music journalism : the most influential music media.
- Feminism and sex in hip-hop music .
- Opera and instrumental music .
- The origin of music festivals .
- Reggae music and its aspects .
- Latin American women and trap music .
- Streaming services prospects.
- Music as the way of promoting new trends.
- Features of punk music.
Psychology Research Paper Topics
Psychology is a multidisciplinary kind of field. That means there’s a wide range of potential research questions.
Do you need to write a psychology paper? Explore the list of possible topics:
- Cross-cultural psychology : research and application.
- The psychology of self-esteem .
- Aspects of industrial and organizational psychology .
- The psychology of learning and motivation : skill and strategy in memory use.
- Description of remarkable experiments and their results in psychology.
- The influence of meditation on people’s health .
- Analyzing psychological disorders: disorders treatment and research .
- Personality psychology and zen Buddhism .
- Perception of psychology in society .
- Organizational behavior. Emotion and personality .
- Children’s emotional development .
- Predictors of postpartum depression.
- Symptoms, causes, and treatment of schizophrenia .
- The social, political, and religious reasons of homophobia .
- Eating disorders in males: current progress and challenges.
- The side effects of antidepressants .
- Cognitive psychology : best cognitive scientists’ practices.
- Social anxiety as a constraint in learning.
- Alzheimer’s disease : working strategies for disease modification.
- The relation between the aging process and psychology.
Religion Research Paper Topics
Religious institutions, beliefs, and customs also get explored in papers quite often. That is rather a controversial sphere of education, so we gathered the most relevant religion paper topics below to help you.
- The religious significance of the Bible .
- The place of women in Islam .
- The history of Christianity in Indonesia .
- Assessing a crisis of faith and making a pastoral crisis intervention.
- Forced religion: cause and effect on children.
- The problem of creation mythology in the study of Indian religion.
- Existence of God : a philosophical introduction.
- Religion and mythology: concepts, differences.
- The role of religion in attitudes toward LGBT individuals.
- Issues and traditions in western religion .
- Theology in the concepts of nature, time, and the future.
- Religion and government interaction in the US.
- The history of the Christian church in East Europe.
- Religion freedom and its limitation .
- Hinduism and Buddhism: similarities and differences .
- Baptism in Christianity .
- The impact of religion on terrorism .
- The God of Israel and Christian theology .
- Culture and religion: how they interact.
- Religion and social morality.
Science Research Topics for College Students
What is a better way to uncover the mysteries of our universe than through science? As it comprises multiple types and directions, there is a vast number of questions to answer.
We suggest you the following science research paper topics:
- Paris climate agreement perspectives.
- Ethical aspects of cloning .
- Political science in the US: past and present issues.
- Genetic engineering and cloning controversy .
- The development of life on Earth .
- The current state of nuclear energetics in America.
- Nuclear weapon -free zones: a history and assessment.
- Solid earth dynamics and the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet.
- Natural hazards : local, national, global.
- Geophysical fluid dynamics: atmospheric dynamics, dynamo theory, and climate dynamics.
- Data science as a key element of data-driven decision-making.
- Robotics & mobility systems in agriculture: successful cases.
- Legal models of space resources exploration and utilization.
- The social context of recycling : factors influencing household recycling behavior.
- Trends in consumer attitudes about agricultural biotechnology .
- Theory of turbulence: a mathematical model that illustrates it.
- Dual-mode infrared and radar hardware-in-the-loop test equipment.
- Essentials of computational chemistry: theories and models.
- Genetic algorithms in astronomy and astrophysics.
- A fundamental relation between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.
Social Science Research Topics
Sociology is an umbrella term that covers dozens of branches. It studies family, social movements, mass media, class theory, race, ethnicity, levels of income. We could go on and on.
As you can see, the options for research are endless. Don’t waste your time trying to understand the peculiarities of each social or cultural branch. Use our list of social science research paper topics for college students.
- Social movements of 21 st century.
- Strauss–howe generational theory in marketing.
- Social media as a “hotbed” of narcissism .
- The nutritional status of vegans and vegetarians .
- Gender identity and community among three transgender groups in the United States: MTFs, FTMs, and genderqueers.
- Social causes of anorexia in young women.
- The civil rights in South America.
- #BlackLivesMatter movement and its influence on society.
- Gay marriage in America : current debates.
- Dependency of the children mortality level on the anti-vaccination movement development.
- Judaism in the first centuries of the Christian era.
- School choice and segregation by race, class, and achievement.
- The correlation between race and wealth.
- Freedom and social status of blacks in America .
- The problem of abortion .
- Causes and effects of drug addiction .
- Horizontal and vertical gender segregation in employment .
- Effects of domestic violence on children.
- The poverty level in the US: a retrospective analysis.
- Women leadership and community development.
We are approaching the end of our ultimate research paper topics list. To wrap it up, let’s take a look at sports research ideas.
It has been present in our lives for a long time and is still developing. That’s why we need to answer new questions and build new knowledge. Explore the list below:
- How does globalization affect sports?
- History of doping scandals in the Olympics .
- Team sports as a socialization tool for children.
- The origin and history of ice hockey.
- Organizational aspects of Paralympic games.
- Aspects of independent Olympians at the Olympic games .
- The unique history of Pelé.
- Risk factors for injuries in football.
- Short interval versus long interval training.
- Sport as a communication medium .
- Nutritional support of young athletes .
- Mental training during competition preparation.
- Philosophical conflicts between the practices of sport and cybersport.
- Running as a treatment for heart diseases .
- Typical traumas of soccer players.
After getting familiar with the list of topics, let’s discuss the essential steps before beginning research.
Narrow Your Topic
Let’s say you selected that one topic from the list. What’s next? It’s time to outline the boundaries of the research. It should not be too broad or narrow . Its scope must strictly correspond to the problem’s scope under exploration.
What is the difference between a narrow and a broad topic?
Let’s look at three research topic examples:
- Eating Disorders. The topic is too general and comprehensive. If your research paper requires to be short, then there is no sense in choosing this topic. You better narrow it down.
- Eating Disorders in Young Females. In this topic, we try to segment the subjected populations to specify the research question. It is still rather broad but more focused.
- Anorexia in Young Females and Its Impact on Society. Here, we distinguish a particular type of eating disorder and leave a population segmentation. That is a perfect example of a narrowed topic. Now, it’s easier to ask specific questions, uncover insights and contribute to further research.
Focus on your narrowed topic and form a central research question. After that, research the existing data and find supporting facts. Don’t let your exploration be one-sided: explore different points of view. Compare and analyze counterpoints and draw conclusions.
After a profound studying, create a thesis statement to support your narrowed topic in a specific way.
To make things clear, use this step-by-step guide on finding and narrowing your topic.
It takes a second to get access to billions of search results on any topic in Google. Most of the time, we jump through the first two or three links, and that’s it. If you seek quality, then it’s not the proper approach. You should acquire the skill of processing the sources.
What are the tips for source evaluation?
- Forget about Wikipedia as a scientific source. Wikipedia is a free platform where any user can make edits. Extracting information from wiki without fact-checking isn’t a good academic practice. Great alternatives to Wikipedia are College e-libraries, scholarly databases, Google Scholar, etc.
- Explore well-respected professional research journals. They contain up-to-date research data and conclusions which shape the most relevant views and understanding of what is going on in the modern world.
- Visit libraries. We tend to overlook them in our digital era. But you can find super valuable sources for research there.
- Avoid personal blogs, opinion articles, and self-published books . There can be heavy use of bias.
3 Main Tips on Writing a Thesis Statement
After you decide on a research topic and sources, it’s time to write a thesis statement.
- Ask a question. Here are two options. In the first one, your professor can assign you a concrete question. If it’s not your case, then ask what interests you. What would you like to explore?
- Give an initial answer. Try to answer the question before in-depth topic exploration. Work out some hypotheses.
- Enrich the initial answer. Prove the initial hypothesis by detailing the research. Use the calculations and quantitative data to make your thesis credible.
To back up these tips, let’s look at a couple of example thesis statements from the StudyCorgi essay database:
You’ve just explored an ultimate list of research paper topic ideas and important steps to turn those topics into excellent research papers.
Did you find our topics compilation helpful? Save it for a future reference or share with friends!
- What Is Research? — Hampshire College
- Definition of Research — Western Sydney University
- The Importance of Research to Students — Cleveland University Kansas City
- Guidelines for Writing Art History Research Papers — UA Little Rock University
- Areas of Research in Biology — Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Environmental Science: Current Research — Herald Scholarly Open Access
- Thesis Statements — University of North Carolina
- Thesis Statement Tips — Purdue University
- What Is Education Research — National Center for Education Research
- Research in the Faculty of Music — University of Cambridge
- Research: Religion and Society Specialism — University of Birmingham
- Sociology Research Areas — Cornell University
- Narrowing a Topic Idea — UCS Libraries
- Developing a Research Question — The University of Arizona
- Organizing Academic Research Paper — Sacred Heart University
- Conclusions and Recommendations — Monash University
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Top 10 Study Tips to Study Like a Harvard Student
Adjusting to a demanding college workload might be a challenge, but these 10 study tips can help you stay prepared and focused.
The introduction to a new college curriculum can seem overwhelming, but optimizing your study habits can boost your confidence and success both in and out of the classroom.
Transitioning from high school to the rigor of college studies can be overwhelming for many students, and finding the best way to study with a new course load can seem like a daunting process.
Effective study methods work because they engage multiple ways of learning. As Jessie Schwab, psychologist and preceptor at the Harvard College Writing Program, points out, we tend to misjudge our own learning. Being able to recite memorized information is not the same as actually retaining it.
“One thing we know from decades of cognitive science research is that learners are often bad judges of their own learning,” says Schwab. “Memorization seems like learning, but in reality, we probably haven’t deeply processed that information enough for us to remember it days—or even hours—later.”
Planning ahead and finding support along the way are essential to your success in college. This blog will offer study tips and strategies to help you survive (and thrive!) in your first college class.
1. Don’t Cram!
It might be tempting to leave all your studying for that big exam up until the last minute, but research suggests that cramming does not improve longer term learning.
Students may perform well on a test for which they’ve crammed, but that doesn’t mean they’ve truly learned the material, says an article from the American Psychological Association . Instead of cramming, studies have shown that studying with the goal of long-term retention is best for learning overall.
2. Plan Ahead—and Stick To It!
Having a study plan with set goals can help you feel more prepared and can give you a roadmap to follow. Schwab said procrastination is one mistake that students often make when transitioning to a university-level course load.
“Oftentimes, students are used to less intensive workloads in high school, so one of my biggest pieces of advice is don’t cram,” says Schwab. “Set yourself a study schedule ahead of time and stick to it.”
3. Ask for Help
You don’t have to struggle through difficult material on your own. Many students are not used to seeking help while in high school, but seeking extra support is common in college.
As our guide to pursuing a biology major explains, “Be proactive about identifying areas where you need assistance and seek out that assistance immediately. The longer you wait, the more difficult it becomes to catch up.”
There are multiple resources to help you, including your professors, tutors, and fellow classmates. Harvard’s Academic Resource Center offers academic coaching, workshops, peer tutoring, and accountability hours for students to keep you on track.
4. Use the Buddy System
Your fellow students are likely going through the same struggles that you are. Reach out to classmates and form a study group to go over material together, brainstorm, and to support each other through challenges.
Having other people to study with means you can explain the material to one another, quiz each other, and build a network you can rely on throughout the rest of the class—and beyond.
5. Find Your Learning Style
It might take a bit of time (and trial and error!) to figure out what study methods work best for you. There are a variety of ways to test your knowledge beyond simply reviewing your notes or flashcards.
Schwab recommends trying different strategies through the process of metacognition. Metacognition involves thinking about your own cognitive processes and can help you figure out what study methods are most effective for you.
Schwab suggests practicing the following steps:
- Before you start to read a new chapter or watch a lecture, review what you already know about the topic and what you’re expecting to learn.
- As you read or listen, take additional notes about new information, such as related topics the material reminds you of or potential connections to other courses. Also note down questions you have.
- Afterward, try to summarize what you’ve learned and seek out answers to your remaining questions.
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6. Take Breaks
The brain can only absorb so much information at a time. According to the National Institutes of Health , research has shown that taking breaks in between study sessions boosts retention.
Studies have shown that wakeful rest plays just as important a role as practice in learning a new skill. Rest allows our brains to compress and consolidate memories of what we just practiced.
Make sure that you are allowing enough time, relaxation, and sleep between study sessions so your brain will be refreshed and ready to accept new information.
7. Cultivate a Productive Space
Where you study can be just as important as how you study.
Find a space that is free of distractions and has all the materials and supplies you need on hand. Eat a snack and have a water bottle close by so you’re properly fueled for your study session.
8. Reward Yourself
Studying can be mentally and emotionally exhausting and keeping your stamina up can be challenging.
Studies have shown that giving yourself a reward during your work can increase the enjoyment and interest in a given task.
According to an article for Science Daily , studies have shown small rewards throughout the process can help keep up motivation, rather than saving it all until the end.
Next time you finish a particularly challenging study session, treat yourself to an ice cream or an episode of your favorite show.
9. Review, Review, Review
Practicing the information you’ve learned is the best way to retain information.
Researchers Elizabeth and Robert Bjork have argued that “desirable difficulties” can enhance learning. For example, testing yourself with flashcards is a more difficult process than simply reading a textbook, but will lead to better long-term learning.
“One common analogy is weightlifting—you have to actually “exercise those muscles” in order to ultimately strengthen your memories,” adds Schwab.
10. Set Specific Goals
Setting specific goals along the way of your studying journey can show how much progress you’ve made. Psychology Today recommends using the SMART method:
- Specific: Set specific goals with an actionable plan, such as “I will study every day between 2 and 4 p.m. at the library.”
- Measurable: Plan to study a certain number of hours or raise your exam score by a certain percent to give you a measurable benchmark.
- Realistic: It’s important that your goals be realistic so you don’t get discouraged. For example, if you currently study two hours per week, increase the time you spend to three or four hours rather than 10.
- Time-specific: Keep your goals consistent with your academic calendar and your other responsibilities.
Using a handful of these study tips can ensure that you’re getting the most out of the material in your classes and help set you up for success for the rest of your academic career and beyond.
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About the Author
Lian Parsons is a Boston-based writer and journalist. She is currently a digital content producer at Harvard’s Division of Continuing Education. Her bylines can be found at the Harvard Gazette, Boston Art Review, Radcliffe Magazine, Experience Magazine, and iPondr.
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The 10 Most Significant Education Studies of 2021
From reframing our notion of “good” schools to mining the magic of expert teachers, here’s a curated list of must-read research from 2021.
It was a year of unprecedented hardship for teachers and school leaders. We pored through hundreds of studies to see if we could follow the trail of exactly what happened: The research revealed a complex portrait of a grueling year during which persistent issues of burnout and mental and physical health impacted millions of educators. Meanwhile, many of the old debates continued: Does paper beat digital? Is project-based learning as effective as direct instruction? How do you define what a “good” school is?
Other studies grabbed our attention, and in a few cases, made headlines. Researchers from the University of Chicago and Columbia University turned artificial intelligence loose on some 1,130 award-winning children’s books in search of invisible patterns of bias. (Spoiler alert: They found some.) Another study revealed why many parents are reluctant to support social and emotional learning in schools—and provided hints about how educators can flip the script.
1. What Parents Fear About SEL (and How to Change Their Minds)
When researchers at the Fordham Institute asked parents to rank phrases associated with social and emotional learning , nothing seemed to add up. The term “social-emotional learning” was very unpopular; parents wanted to steer their kids clear of it. But when the researchers added a simple clause, forming a new phrase—”social-emotional & academic learning”—the program shot all the way up to No. 2 in the rankings.
Parents were picking up subtle cues in the list of SEL-related terms that irked or worried them, the researchers suggest. Phrases like “soft skills” and “growth mindset” felt “nebulous” and devoid of academic content. For some, the language felt suspiciously like “code for liberal indoctrination.”
But the study suggests that parents might need the simplest of reassurances to break through the political noise. Removing the jargon, focusing on productive phrases like “life skills,” and relentlessly connecting SEL to academic progress puts parents at ease—and seems to save social and emotional learning in the process.
2. The Secret Management Techniques of Expert Teachers
In the hands of experienced teachers, classroom management can seem almost invisible: Subtle techniques are quietly at work behind the scenes, with students falling into orderly routines and engaging in rigorous academic tasks almost as if by magic.
That’s no accident, according to new research . While outbursts are inevitable in school settings, expert teachers seed their classrooms with proactive, relationship-building strategies that often prevent misbehavior before it erupts. They also approach discipline more holistically than their less-experienced counterparts, consistently reframing misbehavior in the broader context of how lessons can be more engaging, or how clearly they communicate expectations.
Focusing on the underlying dynamics of classroom behavior—and not on surface-level disruptions—means that expert teachers often look the other way at all the right times, too. Rather than rise to the bait of a minor breach in etiquette, a common mistake of new teachers, they tend to play the long game, asking questions about the origins of misbehavior, deftly navigating the terrain between discipline and student autonomy, and opting to confront misconduct privately when possible.
3. The Surprising Power of Pretesting
Asking students to take a practice test before they’ve even encountered the material may seem like a waste of time—after all, they’d just be guessing.
But new research concludes that the approach, called pretesting, is actually more effective than other typical study strategies. Surprisingly, pretesting even beat out taking practice tests after learning the material, a proven strategy endorsed by cognitive scientists and educators alike. In the study, students who took a practice test before learning the material outperformed their peers who studied more traditionally by 49 percent on a follow-up test, while outperforming students who took practice tests after studying the material by 27 percent.
The researchers hypothesize that the “generation of errors” was a key to the strategy’s success, spurring student curiosity and priming them to “search for the correct answers” when they finally explored the new material—and adding grist to a 2018 study that found that making educated guesses helped students connect background knowledge to new material.
Learning is more durable when students do the hard work of correcting misconceptions, the research suggests, reminding us yet again that being wrong is an important milestone on the road to being right.
4. Confronting an Old Myth About Immigrant Students
Immigrant students are sometimes portrayed as a costly expense to the education system, but new research is systematically dismantling that myth.
In a 2021 study , researchers analyzed over 1.3 million academic and birth records for students in Florida communities, and concluded that the presence of immigrant students actually has “a positive effect on the academic achievement of U.S.-born students,” raising test scores as the size of the immigrant school population increases. The benefits were especially powerful for low-income students.
While immigrants initially “face challenges in assimilation that may require additional school resources,” the researchers concluded, hard work and resilience may allow them to excel and thus “positively affect exposed U.S.-born students’ attitudes and behavior.” But according to teacher Larry Ferlazzo, the improvements might stem from the fact that having English language learners in classes improves pedagogy , pushing teachers to consider “issues like prior knowledge, scaffolding, and maximizing accessibility.”
5. A Fuller Picture of What a ‘Good’ School Is
It’s time to rethink our definition of what a “good school” is, researchers assert in a study published in late 2020. That’s because typical measures of school quality like test scores often provide an incomplete and misleading picture, the researchers found.
The study looked at over 150,000 ninth-grade students who attended Chicago public schools and concluded that emphasizing the social and emotional dimensions of learning—relationship-building, a sense of belonging, and resilience, for example—improves high school graduation and college matriculation rates for both high- and low-income students, beating out schools that focus primarily on improving test scores.
“Schools that promote socio-emotional development actually have a really big positive impact on kids,” said lead researcher C. Kirabo Jackson in an interview with Edutopia . “And these impacts are particularly large for vulnerable student populations who don’t tend to do very well in the education system.”
The findings reinforce the importance of a holistic approach to measuring student progress, and are a reminder that schools—and teachers—can influence students in ways that are difficult to measure, and may only materialize well into the future.
6. Teaching Is Learning
One of the best ways to learn a concept is to teach it to someone else. But do you actually have to step into the shoes of a teacher, or does the mere expectation of teaching do the trick?
In a 2021 study , researchers split students into two groups and gave them each a science passage about the Doppler effect—a phenomenon associated with sound and light waves that explains the gradual change in tone and pitch as a car races off into the distance, for example. One group studied the text as preparation for a test; the other was told that they’d be teaching the material to another student.
The researchers never carried out the second half of the activity—students read the passages but never taught the lesson. All of the participants were then tested on their factual recall of the Doppler effect, and their ability to draw deeper conclusions from the reading.
The upshot? Students who prepared to teach outperformed their counterparts in both duration and depth of learning, scoring 9 percent higher on factual recall a week after the lessons concluded, and 24 percent higher on their ability to make inferences. The research suggests that asking students to prepare to teach something—or encouraging them to think “could I teach this to someone else?”—can significantly alter their learning trajectories.
7. A Disturbing Strain of Bias in Kids’ Books
Some of the most popular and well-regarded children’s books—Caldecott and Newbery honorees among them—persistently depict Black, Asian, and Hispanic characters with lighter skin, according to new research .
Using artificial intelligence, researchers combed through 1,130 children’s books written in the last century, comparing two sets of diverse children’s books—one a collection of popular books that garnered major literary awards, the other favored by identity-based awards. The software analyzed data on skin tone, race, age, and gender.
Among the findings: While more characters with darker skin color begin to appear over time, the most popular books—those most frequently checked out of libraries and lining classroom bookshelves—continue to depict people of color in lighter skin tones. More insidiously, when adult characters are “moral or upstanding,” their skin color tends to appear lighter, the study’s lead author, Anjali Aduki, told The 74 , with some books converting “Martin Luther King Jr.’s chocolate complexion to a light brown or beige.” Female characters, meanwhile, are often seen but not heard.
Cultural representations are a reflection of our values, the researchers conclude: “Inequality in representation, therefore, constitutes an explicit statement of inequality of value.”
8. The Never-Ending ‘Paper Versus Digital’ War
The argument goes like this: Digital screens turn reading into a cold and impersonal task; they’re good for information foraging, and not much more. “Real” books, meanwhile, have a heft and “tactility” that make them intimate, enchanting—and irreplaceable.
But researchers have often found weak or equivocal evidence for the superiority of reading on paper. While a recent study concluded that paper books yielded better comprehension than e-books when many of the digital tools had been removed, the effect sizes were small. A 2021 meta-analysis further muddies the water: When digital and paper books are “mostly similar,” kids comprehend the print version more readily—but when enhancements like motion and sound “target the story content,” e-books generally have the edge.
Nostalgia is a force that every new technology must eventually confront. There’s plenty of evidence that writing with pen and paper encodes learning more deeply than typing. But new digital book formats come preloaded with powerful tools that allow readers to annotate, look up words, answer embedded questions, and share their thinking with other readers.
We may not be ready to admit it, but these are precisely the kinds of activities that drive deeper engagement, enhance comprehension, and leave us with a lasting memory of what we’ve read. The future of e-reading, despite the naysayers, remains promising.
9. New Research Makes a Powerful Case for PBL
Many classrooms today still look like they did 100 years ago, when students were preparing for factory jobs. But the world’s moved on: Modern careers demand a more sophisticated set of skills—collaboration, advanced problem-solving, and creativity, for example—and those can be difficult to teach in classrooms that rarely give students the time and space to develop those competencies.
Project-based learning (PBL) would seem like an ideal solution. But critics say PBL places too much responsibility on novice learners, ignoring the evidence about the effectiveness of direct instruction and ultimately undermining subject fluency. Advocates counter that student-centered learning and direct instruction can and should coexist in classrooms.
Now two new large-scale studies —encompassing over 6,000 students in 114 diverse schools across the nation—provide evidence that a well-structured, project-based approach boosts learning for a wide range of students.
In the studies, which were funded by Lucas Education Research, a sister division of Edutopia , elementary and high school students engaged in challenging projects that had them designing water systems for local farms, or creating toys using simple household objects to learn about gravity, friction, and force. Subsequent testing revealed notable learning gains—well above those experienced by students in traditional classrooms—and those gains seemed to raise all boats, persisting across socioeconomic class, race, and reading levels.
10. Tracking a Tumultuous Year for Teachers
The Covid-19 pandemic cast a long shadow over the lives of educators in 2021, according to a year’s worth of research.
The average teacher’s workload suddenly “spiked last spring,” wrote the Center for Reinventing Public Education in its January 2021 report, and then—in defiance of the laws of motion—simply never let up. By the fall, a RAND study recorded an astonishing shift in work habits: 24 percent of teachers reported that they were working 56 hours or more per week, compared to 5 percent pre-pandemic.
The vaccine was the promised land, but when it arrived nothing seemed to change. In an April 2021 survey conducted four months after the first vaccine was administered in New York City, 92 percent of teachers said their jobs were more stressful than prior to the pandemic, up from 81 percent in an earlier survey.
It wasn’t just the length of the work days; a close look at the research reveals that the school system’s failure to adjust expectations was ruinous. It seemed to start with the obligations of hybrid teaching, which surfaced in Edutopia ’s coverage of overseas school reopenings. In June 2020, well before many U.S. schools reopened, we reported that hybrid teaching was an emerging problem internationally, and warned that if the “model is to work well for any period of time,” schools must “recognize and seek to reduce the workload for teachers.” Almost eight months later, a 2021 RAND study identified hybrid teaching as a primary source of teacher stress in the U.S., easily outpacing factors like the health of a high-risk loved one.
New and ever-increasing demands for tech solutions put teachers on a knife’s edge. In several important 2021 studies, researchers concluded that teachers were being pushed to adopt new technology without the “resources and equipment necessary for its correct didactic use.” Consequently, they were spending more than 20 hours a week adapting lessons for online use, and experiencing an unprecedented erosion of the boundaries between their work and home lives, leading to an unsustainable “always on” mentality. When it seemed like nothing more could be piled on—when all of the lights were blinking red—the federal government restarted standardized testing .
Change will be hard; many of the pathologies that exist in the system now predate the pandemic. But creating strict school policies that separate work from rest, eliminating the adoption of new tech tools without proper supports, distributing surveys regularly to gauge teacher well-being, and above all listening to educators to identify and confront emerging problems might be a good place to start, if the research can be believed.
10 Best Online Websites and Resources for Academic Research
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- Finding credible sources for academic research can be a major challenge for many college students.
- A growing number of online databases and libraries offer millions of potential sources.
- The university library helps students access restricted academic sources.
- Discover new online resources to make your next research project more efficient.
Every college student conducts research at some point. And professors have strong views on what counts as a credible academic resource. Choosing the wrong sources can hurt your grade.
So how can you conduct research efficiently while avoiding sleepless nights in the campus library? Online academic research websites make it easier to find reliable sources quickly.
College students conduct academic research in all kinds of disciplines, including science, history, literature, engineering, and education. And when it comes to college research papers , academic resources are the best sources.
Rather than pulling random facts from the internet — and running into problems with citations — college students need to know how to find credible sources and how to use online academic tools. Keep reading to learn how you can find the best credible sources for your college research needs.
How to Find Credible Sources for Research
How can you find credible sources for research and avoid misinformation? Your instructor likely recommends avoiding general web content or Wikipedia.
Finding the most reliable websites for research starts with evaluating the website itself. Sites run by academic or government organizations rank high in reliability. Databases and specialized search engines can also provide good research sources.
Next, make sure you understand the source of the information and the process used to publish it. Scholarly articles and books that undergo peer review make for the best academic resources.
Finally, when in doubt, check with your instructor or an academic librarian. They can help point you to reliable sources or double-check sources you're unsure about.
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The 10 Best Academic Research Sources
What resources will point you toward reliable sources for your academic research? Rather than scrolling through pages of search results, turn to these academic resources when you need to find sources.
1. Google Scholar
Looking for an academic article, thesis , or abstract? Google Scholar should be your first stop. Google Scholar helps you find related works, locate full documents at your school library , and access scholarly research.
While Google created Google Scholar, it's very different from a general online search. Google Scholar brings together academic articles and ranks them based on the authors, publication location, and citation record. That means the top results generally represent the most reliable scholarship on your topic.
For journal articles, books, images, and even primary sources, JSTOR ranks among the best online resources for academic research. JSTOR's collection spans 75 disciplines, with strengths in the humanities and social sciences . The academic research database includes complete runs of over 2,800 journals.
And if you're looking for images, turn to Artstor , which offers over 2.5 million images related to the arts, sciences, and literature. However, JSTOR is not an open-access database. That means you'll need to log in through your university library, which typically includes off-campus access .
3. Library of Congress
As the largest library in the world, the Library of Congress is an amazing online resource for academic research. Students can search its collections to access digital resources, videos, audio recordings, photographs, and maps.
The library's materials also include notated music, web archives, legislation, and 3D objects. You'll find materials for almost any topic in its extensive collections. You can search historic American newspapers from 1777-1963 with the Chronicling America tool or look up pirate trials in another digital collection.
4. PubMed Central
The National Library of Medicine, part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, runs PubMed Central. Founded in 2000, the database includes academic scholarship dating back to the 18th century. The resource connects college students with life sciences and biomedical academic sources.
And as an open-access database, PubMed Central offers free access to scholarly literature. Today, PubMed Central has over 7 million full-text records, making it a great resource for students in the life sciences or medical fields.
5. Google Books
Whether you're looking for a recent publication or an out-of-print book, there's a good chance you'll find it on Google Books. In 2019, Google announced that Google Books contains over 40 million books .
You can enter any search term to find books that contain matches. And you can download the full text of any book in the public domain — which includes 10 million titles. Make sure to check publisher and author information when using Google Books.
The site also includes reference pages that link to book reviews. Keep in mind that you'll have more limited access to recent books. Still, Google Books is a great first step to find sources that you can later look for at your campus library.
If you're looking for scientific research, Science.gov is a great option. The site provides full-text documents, scientific data, and other resources from federally funded research.
A U.S. government site, Science.gov searches more than 60 databases and 2,200 scientific websites. You'll find over 200 million pages of research and development information, including projects funded by 14 federal agencies. Students in any STEM field can benefit from the resource.
7. Digital Commons Network
University librarians curate the Digital Commons Network, which connects students with peer-reviewed articles. The site's other resources include dissertations, book chapters, conference proceedings, and working papers.
The Digital Commons Network includes scholarly work from diverse disciplines like architecture, business, education, law, and the sciences. You can also access humanities, social sciences, and engineering scholarship through the network.
ResearchGate has been described as social networking for research scientists. But ResearchGate is also a great option to find open-access academic sources. Scholars upload their work to ResearchGate, which makes it available to the public for free.
Currently, over 20 million researchers around the world use the site, which contains over 135 million publications. College students looking for scientific research can often find resources on ResearchGate and even connect with scholars.
When you're looking for library resources, WorldCat is one of the best tools. Connected to over 10,000 libraries, WorldCat is a database that allows you to search library collections.
The database lists books and articles available at your local libraries, making it easier to find materials that are not available online. In addition to books, WorldCat contains music, videos, audiobooks, and scholarly articles.
You can also find digital research materials, including photos. When you're logged into WorldCat through your university library, you can also access full-text articles and other resources. Or you can use WorldCat to find sources to request through interlibrary loan.
10. Your University Library
When you're conducting academic research, your university library can be one of your best resources. In addition to online databases, journal articles, and books, your campus library also has academic librarians who can point you to the best sources.
When you don't know where to start, reach out to an academic librarian to learn more about your school's research tools. Or use interlibrary loan to get a scanned copy of an article. Many of the campus library's resources are available online, making them easy to access.
How to Access Academic Resources
Many sites offer open-access resources. That means anyone can access the materials. Other sites restrict what you can read. For example, you might find some blank pages when searching on Google Books because of copyright restrictions. And many academic articles are behind paywalls.
Fortunately, college students benefit from one of the best resources for conducting research: the university library. Your library likely subscribes to multiple academic databases and journals. If you run into a paywall, check whether your library offers access to the resource.
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Learning at college requires processing and retaining a high volume of information across various disciplines and subjects at the same time, which can be a daunting task, especially if the information is brand new. In response, college students try out varied approaches to their learning – often drawing from their high school experiences and modeling what they see their peers doing. While it’s great to try different styles and approaches to learning and studying for your courses, it's smart to incorporate into your daily habits some learning practices that are backed up by current research.
Below are some effective learning practices suggested by research in the cognitive and learning sciences:
Take ownership of your educational experience.
As an engaged learner, it is important to take an active, self-directed role in your academic experience. Taking agency might feel new to you. In high school, you might have felt like you had little control over your learning experience, so transitioning to an environment where you are implicitly expected to be in the driver’s seat can be disorienting.
A shift in your mindset regarding your agency, however, can make a big difference in your ability to learn effectively and get the results you want out of your courses.
Here are four concrete actions you can take to assert ownership over your education :
- Attend office hours . Come prepared with questions for your instructor about lectures, readings, or other aspects of the course.
- Schedule meetings with administrators and faculty to discuss your academic trajectory and educational goals. You might meet with your academic adviser, course heads, or the Director of Undergraduate Studies (DUS) in your concentration.
- Identify areas for growth and development based on your academic goals. Then, explore opportunities to shape and further refine your skills in those areas.
- Advocate for support, tools, equipment, or considerations that address your learning needs.
Seek out opportunities for active learning.
Many courses include opportunities for active and engaged learning within their structure. Take advantage of those opportunities in order to enhance your understanding of the material. If such opportunities are not built into the course structure, you can develop your own active learning strategies, including joining study groups and using other active studying techniques. Anytime you grapple actively with your course material, rather than taking it in passively, you’re engaging in active learning. By doing so, you are increasing your retention of key course concepts.
One particularly effective way to help yourself stay focused and engaged in the learning process is to cultivate learning communities, such as accountability groups and study groups. Working in the company of other engaged learners can help remind you why you love learning or why you chose a particular course, concentration, research project, or field of study. Those reminders can re-energize and refocus your efforts.
Practice study strategies that promote deep learning.
In an attempt to keep up with the demands of college, many students learn concepts just in time for assessment benchmarks (tests, exams, and quizzes). The problem with this methodology is that, for many disciplines (and especially in STEM), the concepts build on one another. Students survive the course only to be met at the final with concepts from the first quiz that they have forgotten long ago. This is why deep learning is important. Deep learning occurs when students use study strategies that ensure course ideas and concepts are embedded into long-term, rather than just short-term, memory. Building your study plans and review sessions in a way that helps create a conceptual framing of the material will serve you now and in the long run.
Here are some study strategies that promote deep learning:
Concept Mapping : A concept map is a visualization of knowledge that is organized by the relationships between the topics. At its core, it is made of concepts that are connected together by lines (or arrows) that are labeled with the relationship between the concepts.
Collaboration : You don’t have to go it alone. In fact, research on learning suggests that it’s best not to. Using study groups, ARC accountability hours, office hours, question centers, and other opportunities to engage with your peers helps you not only test your understanding but also learn different approaches to tackling the material.
Self-test : Quiz yourself about the material you need to know with your notes put away. Refamiliarize yourself with the answers to questions you get wrong, wait a few hours, and then try asking yourself again. Use practice tests provided by your courses or use free apps to create quizzes for yourself.
Create a connection : As you try to understand how all the concepts and ideas from your course fit together, try to associate new information with something you already know. Making connections can help you create a more holistic picture of the material you’re learning.
Teach someone (even yourself!) : Try teaching someone the concept you’re trying to remember. You can even try to talk to yourself about it! Vocalizing helps activate different sensory processes, which can enhance memory and help you embed concepts more deeply.
Interleave : We often think we’ll do best if we study one subject for long periods of time, but research contradicts this. Try to work with smaller units of time (a half-hour to an hour) and switch up your subjects. Return to concepts you studied earlier at intervals to ensure you learned them sufficiently.
Be intentional about getting started and avoiding procrastination.
When students struggle to complete tasks and projects, their procrastination is not because of laziness, but rather because of the anxiety and negative emotions that accompany starting the task. Understanding what conditions promote or derail your intention to begin a task can help you avoid procrastinating.
Consider the following tips for getting started:
Eat the Frog : The frog is that one thing you have on your to-do list that you have absolutely no motivation to do and that you’re most likely to procrastinate on. Eating the frog means to just do it, as the first thing you do, and get it over with. If you don’t, odds are that you’ll procrastinate all day. With that one task done, you will experience a sense of accomplishment at the beginning of your day and gain some momentum that will help you move through the rest of your tasks.
Pomodoro Technique : Sometimes, we can procrastinate because we’re overwhelmed by the sheer amount of time we expect it will take to complete a task. But, while it might feel hard to sit down for several hours to work on something, most of us feel we can easily work for a half hour on almost any task. Enter the Pomodoro Technique! When faced with any large task or series of tasks, break the work down into short, timed intervals (25 minutes or so) that are spaced out by short breaks (5 minutes). Working in short intervals trains your brain to focus for manageable periods of time and helps you stay on top of deadlines. With time, the Pomodoro Technique can even help improve your attention span and concentration. Pomodoro is a cyclical system. You work in short sprints, which makes sure you’re consistently productive. You also get to take regular breaks that bolster your motivation and get you ready for your next pomodoro.
Distraction Pads : Sometimes we stop a task that took us a lot of time to get started on because we get distracted by something else. To avoid this, have a notepad beside you while working, and every time you get distracted with a thought, write it down, then push it aside for later. Distracting thoughts can be anything from remembering that you still have another assignment to complete to daydreaming about your next meal. Later on in the day, when you have some free time, you can review your distraction pad to see if any of those thoughts are important and need to be addressed.
Online Apps : It can be hard to rely on our own force of will to get ourselves to start a task, so consider using an external support. There are many self-control apps available for free online (search for "self-control apps"). Check out a few and decide on one that seems most likely to help you eliminate the distractions that can get in the way of starting and completing your work.
Engage in metacognition.
An effective skill for learning is metacognition. Metacognition is the process of “thinking about thinking” or reflecting on personal habits, knowledge, and approaches to learning. Engaging in metacognition enables students to become aware of what they need to do to initiate and persist in tasks, to evaluate their own learning strategies, and to invest the adequate mental effort to succeed. When students work at being aware of their own thinking and learning, they are more likely to recognize patterns and to intentionally transfer knowledge and skills to solve increasingly complex problems. They also develop a greater sense of self-efficacy.
Mentally checking in with yourself while you study is a great metacognitive technique for assessing your level of understanding. Asking lots of “why,” “how,” and “what” questions about the material you’re reviewing helps you to be reflective about your learning and to strategize about how to tackle tricky material. If you know something, you should be able to explain to yourself how you know it. If you don’t know something, you should start by identifying exactly what you don’t know and determining how you can find the answer.
Metacognition is important in helping us overcome illusions of competence (our brain’s natural inclination to think that we know more than we actually know). All too often students don’t discover what they really know until they take a test. Metacognition helps you be a better judge of how well you understand your course material, which then enables you to refine your approach to studying and better prepare for tests.
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Undergraduate Research/Creative Projects
At many schools, students receive the opportunity to do intensive and self-directed research or creative work that results in an original scholarly paper or other product that can be formally presented on or off campus. They may work independently or in small teams and are typically mentored by a faculty member. In spring and summer 2023, we invited college presidents, chief academic officers, deans of students and deans of admissions from more than 1,500 schools to nominate up to 15 institutions with stellar examples of undergraduate research/creative projects. Colleges and universities that received 10 or more nominations are ranked here. Read the methodology »
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- #1 in Undergraduate Research/Creative Projects
- #2 in National Universities
Though the Massachusetts Institute of Technology may be best known for its math, science and engineering education, this private research university also offers architecture, humanities, management and social science programs. The school is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, just across the Charles River from downtown Boston.
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Carnegie Mellon University
- #2 in Undergraduate Research/Creative Projects
- #24 in National Universities (tie)
Carnegie Mellon University, a private institution in Pittsburgh, is the country’s only school founded by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. The school specializes in academic areas including engineering, business, computer science and fine arts.
California Institute of Technology
- #3 in Undergraduate Research/Creative Projects
- #7 in National Universities (tie)
The California Institute of Technology focuses on science and engineering education and has a low student-to-faculty ratio of 3:1. This private institution in Pasadena, California, is actively involved in research projects with grants from NASA, the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- #4 in Undergraduate Research/Creative Projects
- #3 in National Universities (tie)
Harvard University is a private institution in Cambridge, Massachusetts, just outside of Boston. This Ivy League school is the oldest higher education institution in the country and has the largest endowment of any school in the world.
- #5 in Undergraduate Research/Creative Projects (tie)
- #1 in National Universities
The ivy-covered campus of Princeton University, a private institution, is located in the quiet town of Princeton, New Jersey. Princeton was the first university to offer a "no loan" policy to financially needy students, giving grants instead of loans to accepted students who need help paying tuition.
University of Michigan--Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor, MI
- #21 in National Universities
The university boasts of Ann Arbor, only 45 minutes from Detroit, as one of the best college towns in the U.S. Freshmen are guaranteed housing but not required to live on campus. Students can join one of the school’s more than 1,500 student organizations or 62 Greek chapters. Athletics play a central role at Michigan, including the football team’s fierce rivalry with Ohio State. Michigan also offers highly ranked graduate programs, including the Stephen M. Ross School of Business, College of Engineering, Law School and Medical School, in addition to the well-regarded School of Dentistry and Taubman College for Architecture and Urban Planning. The University of Michigan Hospitals and Health Centers is ranked among the top hospitals in the country.
Georgia Institute of Technology
- #7 in Undergraduate Research/Creative Projects (tie)
- #33 in National Universities (tie)
Georgia Tech, located in the heart of Atlanta, offers a wide range of student activities. The Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets, an NCAA Division I team, compete in the Atlantic Coast Conference and have a fierce rivalry with the University of Georgia. Since 1961, the football team has been led onto the field at home games by the Ramblin' Wreck, a restored 1930 Model A Ford Sport Coupe. Georgia Tech has a small but vibrant Greek community. Freshmen are offered housing, but aren't required to live on campus. In addition to its campuses in Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia Tech has campuses in France, Ireland, Costa Rica, Singapore and China.
The sunny campus of Stanford University is located in California’s Bay Area, about 30 miles from San Francisco. The private institution stresses a multidisciplinary combination of teaching, learning, and research, and students have many opportunities to get involved in research projects.
New Haven, CT
- #9 in Undergraduate Research/Creative Projects
- #5 in National Universities
Yale University, located in New Haven, Connecticut, offers a small college life with the resources of a major research institution. Yale students are divided into 14 residential colleges that foster a supportive environment for living, learning and socializing.
Johns Hopkins University
- #10 in Undergraduate Research/Creative Projects
- #9 in National Universities (tie)
Johns Hopkins University is a private institution in Baltimore that offers a wide array of academic programs in the arts, humanities, social and natural sciences, and engineering disciplines. The Hopkins Blue Jays men’s lacrosse team is consistently dominant in the NCAA Division I; other sports teams at Hopkins compete at the Division III level.
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- Front Psychol
Academic Stress and Mental Well-Being in College Students: Correlations, Affected Groups, and COVID-19
1 Department of Neurology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, United States
2 Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, United States
3 Office for Diversity and Community Engagement, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, United States
Keith W. Pecor
4 Department of Biology, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ, United States
The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.
Academic stress may be the single most dominant stress factor that affects the mental well-being of college students. Some groups of students may experience more stress than others, and the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic could further complicate the stress response. We surveyed 843 college students and evaluated whether academic stress levels affected their mental health, and if so, whether there were specific vulnerable groups by gender, race/ethnicity, year of study, and reaction to the pandemic. Using a combination of scores from the Perception of Academic Stress Scale (PAS) and the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (SWEMWBS), we found a significant correlation between worse academic stress and poor mental well-being in all the students, who also reported an exacerbation of stress in response to the pandemic. In addition, SWEMWBS scores revealed the lowest mental health and highest academic stress in non-binary individuals, and the opposite trend was observed for both the measures in men. Furthermore, women and non-binary students reported higher academic stress than men, as indicated by PAS scores. The same pattern held as a reaction to COVID-19-related stress. PAS scores and responses to the pandemic varied by the year of study, but no obvious patterns emerged. These results indicate that academic stress in college is significantly correlated to psychological well-being in the students who responded to this survey. In addition, some groups of college students are more affected by stress than others, and additional resources and support should be provided to them.
Late adolescence and emerging adulthood are transitional periods marked by major physiological and psychological changes, including elevated stress (Hogan and Astone, 1986 ; Arnett, 2000 ; Shanahan, 2000 ; Spear, 2000 ; Scales et al., 2015 ; Romeo et al., 2016 ; Barbayannis et al., 2017 ; Chiang et al., 2019 ; Lally and Valentine-French, 2019 ; Matud et al., 2020 ). This pattern is particularly true for college students. According to a 2015 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment survey, three in four college students self-reported feeling stressed, while one in five college students reported stress-related suicidal ideation (Liu, C. H., et al., 2019 ; American Psychological Association, 2020 ). Studies show that a stressor experienced in college may serve as a predictor of mental health diagnoses (Pedrelli et al., 2015 ; Liu, C. H., et al., 2019 ; Karyotaki et al., 2020 ). Indeed, many mental health disorders, including depression, anxiety, and substance abuse disorder, begin during this period (Blanco et al., 2008 ; Pedrelli et al., 2015 ; Saleh et al., 2017 ; Reddy et al., 2018 ; Liu, C. H., et al., 2019 ).
Stress experienced by college students is multi-factorial and can be attributed to a variety of contributing factors (Reddy et al., 2018 ; Karyotaki et al., 2020 ). A growing body of evidence suggests that academic-related stress plays a significant role in college (Misra and McKean, 2000 ; Dusselier et al., 2005 ; Elias et al., 2011 ; Bedewy and Gabriel, 2015 ; Hj Ramli et al., 2018 ; Reddy et al., 2018 ; Pascoe et al., 2020 ). For instance, as many as 87% of college students surveyed across the United States cited education as their primary source of stress (American Psychological Association, 2020 ). College students are exposed to novel academic stressors, such as an extensive academic course load, substantial studying, time management, classroom competition, financial concerns, familial pressures, and adapting to a new environment (Misra and Castillo, 2004 ; Byrd and McKinney, 2012 ; Ekpenyong et al., 2013 ; Bedewy and Gabriel, 2015 ; Ketchen Lipson et al., 2015 ; Pedrelli et al., 2015 ; Reddy et al., 2018 ; Liu, C. H., et al., 2019 ; Freire et al., 2020 ; Karyotaki et al., 2020 ). Academic stress can reduce motivation, hinder academic achievement, and lead to increased college dropout rates (Pascoe et al., 2020 ).
Academic stress has also been shown to negatively impact mental health in students (Li and Lin, 2003 ; Eisenberg et al., 2009 ; Green et al., 2021 ). Mental, or psychological, well-being is one of the components of positive mental health, and it includes happiness, life satisfaction, stress management, and psychological functioning (Ryan and Deci, 2001 ; Tennant et al., 2007 ; Galderisi et al., 2015 ; Trout and Alsandor, 2020 ; Defeyter et al., 2021 ; Green et al., 2021 ). Positive mental health is an understudied but important area that helps paint a more comprehensive picture of overall mental health (Tennant et al., 2007 ; Margraf et al., 2020 ). Moreover, positive mental health has been shown to be predictive of both negative and positive mental health indicators over time (Margraf et al., 2020 ). Further exploring the relationship between academic stress and mental well-being is important because poor mental well-being has been shown to affect academic performance in college (Tennant et al., 2007 ; Eisenberg et al., 2009 ; Freire et al., 2016 ).
Perception of academic stress varies among different groups of college students (Lee et al., 2021 ). For instance, female college students report experiencing increased stress than their male counterparts (Misra et al., 2000 ; Eisenberg et al., 2007 ; Evans et al., 2018 ; Lee et al., 2021 ). Male and female students also respond differently to stressors (Misra et al., 2000 ; Verma et al., 2011 ). Moreover, compared to their cisgender peers, non-binary students report increased stressors and mental health issues (Budge et al., 2020 ). The academic year of study of the college students has also been shown to impact academic stress levels (Misra and McKean, 2000 ; Elias et al., 2011 ; Wyatt et al., 2017 ; Liu, C. H., et al., 2019 ; Defeyter et al., 2021 ). While several studies indicate that racial/ethnic minority groups of students, including Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian American students, are more likely to experience anxiety, depression, and suicidality than their white peers (Lesure-Lester and King, 2004 ; Lipson et al., 2018 ; Liu, C. H., et al., 2019 ; Kodish et al., 2022 ), these studies are limited and often report mixed or inconclusive findings (Liu, C. H., et al., 2019 ; Kodish et al., 2022 ). Therefore, more studies should be conducted to address this gap in research to help identify subgroups that may be disproportionately impacted by academic stress and lower well-being.
The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major stressor that has led to a mental health crisis (American Psychological Association, 2020 ; Dong and Bouey, 2020 ). For college students, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant changes and disruptions to daily life, elevated stress levels, and mental and physical health deterioration (American Psychological Association, 2020 ; Husky et al., 2020 ; Patsali et al., 2020 ; Son et al., 2020 ; Clabaugh et al., 2021 ; Lee et al., 2021 ; Lopes and Nihei, 2021 ; Yang et al., 2021 ). While any college student is vulnerable to these stressors, these concerns are amplified for members of minority groups (Salerno et al., 2020 ; Clabaugh et al., 2021 ; McQuaid et al., 2021 ; Prowse et al., 2021 ; Kodish et al., 2022 ). Identifying students at greatest risk provides opportunities to offer support, resources, and mental health services to specific subgroups.
The overall aim of this study was to assess academic stress and mental well-being in a sample of college students. Within this umbrella, we had several goals. First, to determine whether a relationship exists between the two constructs of perceived academic stress, measured by the Perception of Academic Stress Scale (PAS), and mental well-being, measured by the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (SWEMWBS), in college students. Second, to identify groups that could experience differential levels of academic stress and mental health. Third, to explore how the perception of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic affected stress levels. We hypothesized that students who experienced more academic stress would have worse psychological well-being and that certain groups of students would be more impacted by academic- and COVID-19-related stress.
Materials and Methods
A survey was developed that included all questions from the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being (Tennant et al., 2007 ; Stewart-Brown and Janmohamed, 2008 ) and from the Perception of Academic Stress Scale (Bedewy and Gabriel, 2015 ). The Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale is a seven-item scale designed to measure mental well-being and positive mental health (Tennant et al., 2007 ; Fung, 2019 ; Shah et al., 2021 ). The Perception of Academic Stress Scale is an 18-item scale designed to assess sources of academic stress perceived by individuals and measures three main academic stressors: academic expectations, workload and examinations, and academic self-perceptions of students (Bedewy and Gabriel, 2015 ). These shorter scales were chosen to increase our response and study completion rates (Kost and de Rosa, 2018 ). Both tools have been shown to be valid and reliable in college students with Likert scale responses (Tennant et al., 2007 ; Bedewy and Gabriel, 2015 ; Ringdal et al., 2018 ; Fung, 2019 ; Koushede et al., 2019 ). Both the SWEMWBS and PAS scores are a summation of responses to the individual questions in the instruments. For the SWEMWBS questions, a higher score indicates better mental health, and scores range from 7 to 35. Similarly, the PAS questions are phrased such that a higher score indicates lower levels of stress, and scores range from 18 to 90. We augmented the survey with demographic questions (e.g., age, gender, and race/ethnicity) at the beginning of the survey and two yes/no questions and one Likert scale question about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic at the end of our survey.
Participants for the study were self-reported college students between the ages of 18 and 30 years who resided in the United States, were fluent in English, and had Internet access. Participants were solicited through Prolific ( https://prolific.co ) in October 2021. A total of 1,023 individuals enrolled in the survey. Three individuals did not agree to participate after beginning the survey. Two were not fluent in English. Thirteen individuals indicated that they were not college students. Two were not in the 18–30 age range, and one was located outside of the United States. Of the remaining individuals, 906 were full-time students and 96 were part-time students. Given the skew of the data and potential differences in these populations, we removed the part-time students. Of the 906 full-time students, 58 indicated that they were in their fifth year of college or higher. We understand that not every student completes their undergraduate studies in 4 years, but we did not want to have a mixture of undergraduate and graduate students with no way to differentiate them. Finally, one individual reported their age as a non-number, and four individuals did not answer a question about their response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This yielded a final sample of 843 college students.
After reviewing the dataset, some variables were removed from consideration due to a lack of consistency (e.g., some students reported annual income for themselves and others reported family income) or heterogeneity that prevented easy categorization (e.g., field of study). We settled on four variables of interest: gender, race/ethnicity, year in school, and response to the COVID-19 pandemic ( Table 1 ). Gender was coded as female, male, or non-binary. Race/ethnicity was coded as white or Caucasian; Black or African American; East Asian; Hispanic, Latino, or of Spanish origin; or other. Other was used for groups that were not well-represented in the sample and included individuals who identified themselves as Middle Eastern, Native American or Alaskan Native, and South Asian, as well as individuals who chose “other” or “prefer not to answer” on the survey. The year of study was coded as one through four, and COVID-19 stress was coded as two groups, no change/neutral response/reduced stress or increased stress.
Characteristics of the participants in the study.
Our first goal was to determine whether there was a relationship between self-reported academic stress and mental health, and we found a significant correlation (see Results section). Given the positive correlation, a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with a model testing the main effects of gender, race/ethnicity, and year of study was run in SPSS v 26.0. A factorial MANOVA would have been ideal, but our data were drawn from a convenience sample, which did not give equal representation to all groupings, and some combinations of gender, race/ethnicity, and year of study were poorly represented (e.g., a single individual). As such, we determined that it would be better to have a lack of interaction terms as a limitation to the study than to provide potentially spurious results. Finally, we used chi-square analyses to assess the effect of potential differences in the perception of the COVID-19 pandemic on stress levels in general among the groups in each category (gender, race/ethnicity, and year of study).
In terms of internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha was 0.82 for the SMEMWBS and 0.86 for the PAS. A variety of descriptors have been applied to Cronbach's alpha values. That said, 0.7 is often considered a threshold value in terms of acceptable internal consistency, and our values could be considered “high” or “good” (Taber, 2018 ).
The participants in our study were primarily women (78.5% of respondents; Table 1 ). Participants were not equally distributed among races/ethnicities, with the majority of students selecting white or Caucasian (66.4% of responders; Table 1 ), or years of study, with fewer first-year students than other groups ( Table 1 ).
Students who reported higher academic stress also reported worse mental well-being in general, irrespective of age, gender, race/ethnicity, or year of study. PAS and SWEMWBS scores were significantly correlated ( r = 0.53, p < 0.001; Figure 1 ), indicating that a higher level of perceived academic stress is associated with worse mental well-being in college students within the United States.
SWEMWBS and PAS scores for all participants.
Among the subgroups of students, women, non-binary students, and second-year students reported higher academic stress levels and worse mental well-being ( Table 2 ; Figures 2 – 4 ). In addition, the combined measures differed significantly between the groups in each category ( Table 2 ). However, as measured by partial eta squared, the effect sizes were relatively small, given the convention of 0.01 = small, 0.06 = medium, and 0.14 = large differences (Lakens, 2013 ). As such, there were only two instances in which Tukey's post-hoc tests revealed more than one statistical grouping ( Figures 2 – 4 ). For SWEMWBS score by gender, women were intermediate between men (high) and non-binary individuals (low) and not significantly different from either group ( Figure 2 ). Second-year students had the lowest PAS scores for the year of study, and first-year students had the highest scores. Third- and fourth-year students were intermediate and not statistically different from the other two groups ( Figure 4 ). There were no pairwise differences in academic stress levels or mental well-being among racial/ethnic groups.
Results of the MANOVA.
SWEMWBS and PAS scores according to gender (mean ± SEM). Different letters for SWEMWBS scores indicate different statistical groupings ( p < 0.05).
SWEMWBS and PAS scores according to year in college (mean ± SEM). Different letters for PAS scores indicate different statistical groupings ( p < 0.05).
SWEMWBS and PAS scores according to race/ethnicity (mean ± SEM).
The findings varied among categories in terms of stress responses due to the COVID-19 pandemic ( Table 3 ). For gender, men were less likely than women or non-binary individuals to report increased stress from COVID-19 (χ 2 = 27.98, df = 2, p < 0.001). All racial/ethnic groups responded similarly to the pandemic (χ 2 = 3.41, df = 4, p < 0.49). For the year of study, first-year students were less likely than other cohorts to report increased stress from COVID-19 (χ 2 = 9.38, df = 3, p < 0.03).
Impact of COVID-19 on stress level by gender, race/ethnicity, and year of study.
Our primary findings showed a positive correlation between perceived academic stress and mental well-being in United States college students, suggesting that academic stressors, including academic expectations, workload and grading, and students' academic self-perceptions, are equally important as psychological well-being. Overall, irrespective of gender, race/ethnicity, or year of study, students who reported higher academic stress levels experienced diminished mental well-being. The utilization of well-established scales and a large sample size are strengths of this study. Our results extend and contribute to the existing literature on stress by confirming findings from past studies that reported higher academic stress and lower psychological well-being in college students utilizing the same two scales (Green et al., 2021 ; Syed, 2021 ). To our knowledge, the majority of other prior studies with similar findings examined different components of stress, studied negative mental health indicators, used different scales or methods, employed smaller sample sizes, or were conducted in different countries (Li and Lin, 2003 ; American Psychological Association, 2020 ; Husky et al., 2020 ; Pascoe et al., 2020 ; Patsali et al., 2020 ; Clabaugh et al., 2021 ; Lee et al., 2021 ; Lopes and Nihei, 2021 ; Yang et al., 2021 ).
This study also demonstrated that college students are not uniformly impacted by academic stress or pandemic-related stress and that there are significant group-level differences in mental well-being. Specifically, non-binary individuals and second-year students were disproportionately impacted by academic stress. When considering the effects of gender, non-binary students, in comparison to gender-conforming students, reported the highest stress levels and worst psychological well-being. Although there is a paucity of research examining the impact of academic stress in non-binary college students, prior studies have indicated that non-binary adults face adverse mental health outcomes when compared to male and female-identifying individuals (Thorne et al., 2018 ; Jones et al., 2019 ; Budge et al., 2020 ). Alarmingly, Lipson et al. ( 2019 ) found that gender non-conforming college students were two to four times more likely to experience mental health struggles than cisgender students (Lipson et al., 2019 ). With a growing number of college students in the United States identifying as as non-binary, additional studies could offer invaluable insight into how academic stress affects this population (Budge et al., 2020 ).
In addition, we found that second-year students reported the most academic-related distress and lowest psychological well-being relative to students in other years of study. We surmise this may be due to this group taking advanced courses, managing heavier academic workloads, and exploring different majors. Other studies support our findings and suggest higher stress levels could be attributed to increased studying and difficulties with time management, as well as having less well-established social support networks and coping mechanisms compared to upperclassmen (Allen and Hiebert, 1991 ; Misra and McKean, 2000 ; Liu, X et al., 2019 ). Benefiting from their additional experience, upperclassmen may have developed more sophisticated studying skills, formed peer support groups, and identified approaches to better manage their academic stress (Allen and Hiebert, 1991 ; Misra and McKean, 2000 ). Our findings suggest that colleges should consider offering tailored mental health resources, such as time management and study skill workshops, based on the year of study to improve students' stress levels and psychological well-being (Liu, X et al., 2019 ).
Although this study reported no significant differences regarding race or ethnicity, this does not indicate that minority groups experienced less academic stress or better mental well-being (Lee et al., 2021 ). Instead, our results may reflect the low sample size of non-white races/ethnicities, which may not have given enough statistical power to corroborate. In addition, since coping and resilience are important mediators of subjective stress experiences (Freire et al., 2020 ), we speculate that the lower ratios of stress reported in non-white participants in our study (75 vs. 81) may be because they are more accustomed to adversity and thereby more resilient (Brown, 2008 ; Acheampong et al., 2019 ). Furthermore, ethnic minority students may face stigma when reporting mental health struggles (Liu, C. H., et al., 2019 ; Lee et al., 2021 ). For instance, studies showed that Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian American students disclose fewer mental health issues than white students (Liu, C. H., et al., 2019 ; Lee et al., 2021 ). Moreover, the ability to identify stressors and mental health problems may manifest differently culturally for some minority groups (Huang and Zane, 2016 ; Liu, C. H., et al., 2019 ). Contrary to our findings, other studies cited racial disparities in academic stress levels and mental well-being of students. More specifically, Negga et al. ( 2007 ) concluded that African American college students were more susceptible to higher academic stress levels than their white classmates (Negga et al., 2007 ). Another study reported that minority students experienced greater distress and worse mental health outcomes compared to non-minority students (Smith et al., 2014 ). Since there may be racial disparities in access to mental health services at the college level, universities, professors, and counselors should offer additional resources to support these students while closely monitoring their psychological well-being (Lipson et al., 2018 ; Liu, C. H., et al., 2019 ).
While the COVID-19 pandemic increased stress levels in all the students included in our study, women, non-binary students, and upperclassmen were disproportionately affected. An overwhelming body of evidence suggests that the majority of college students experienced increased stress levels and worsening mental health as a result of the pandemic (Allen and Hiebert, 1991 ; American Psychological Association, 2020 ; Husky et al., 2020 ; Patsali et al., 2020 ; Son et al., 2020 ; Clabaugh et al., 2021 ; Lee et al., 2021 ; Yang et al., 2021 ). Our results also align with prior studies that found similar subgroups of students experience disproportionate pandemic-related distress (Gao et al., 2020 ; Clabaugh et al., 2021 ; Hunt et al., 2021 ; Jarrett et al., 2021 ; Lee et al., 2021 ; Chen and Lucock, 2022 ). In particular, the differences between female students and their male peers may be the result of different psychological and physiological responses to stress reactivity, which in turn may contribute to different coping mechanisms to stress and the higher rates of stress-related disorders experienced by women (Misra et al., 2000 ; Kajantie and Phillips, 2006 ; Verma et al., 2011 ; Gao et al., 2020 ; Graves et al., 2021 ). COVID-19 was a secondary consideration in our study and survey design, so the conclusions drawn here are necessarily limited.
The implications of this study are that college students facing increased stress and struggling with mental health issues should receive personalized and specific mental health services, resources, and support. This is particularly true for groups that have been disproportionately impacted by academic stress and stress due to the pandemic. Many students who experience mental health struggles underutilize college services due to cost, stigma, or lack of information (Cage et al., 2020 ; Lee et al., 2021 ). To raise awareness and destigmatize mental health, colleges can consider distributing confidential validated assessments, such as the PAS and SWEMWBS, in class and teach students to self-score (Lee et al., 2021 ). These results can be used to understand how academic stress and mental well-being change over time and allow for specific and targeted interventions for vulnerable groups. In addition, teaching students healthy stress management techniques has been shown to improve psychological well-being (Alborzkouh et al., 2015 ). Moreover, adaptive coping strategies, including social and emotional support, have been found to improve the mental well-being of students, and stress-reduction peer support groups and workshops on campus could be beneficial in reducing stress and improving the self-efficacy of students (Ruthig et al., 2009 ; Baqutayan, 2011 ; Bedewy and Gabriel, 2015 ; Freire et al., 2020 ; Green et al., 2021 ; Suresh et al., 2021 ). Other interventions that have been effective in improving the coping skills of college students include cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness mediation, and online coping tools (Kang et al., 2009 ; Regehr et al., 2013 ; Molla Jafar et al., 2015 ; Phang et al., 2015 ; Houston et al., 2017 ; Yusufov et al., 2019 ; Freire et al., 2020 ). Given that resilience has also been shown to help mediate stress and improve mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, interventions focusing on enhancing resilience should be considered (Surzykiewicz et al., 2021 ; Skalski et al., 2022 ). Telemental health resources across colleges can also be implemented to reduce stigma and improve at-risk students' access to care (Toscos et al., 2018 ; Hadler et al., 2021 ). University campuses, professors, and counselors should consider focusing on fostering a more equitable and inclusive environment to encourage marginalized students to seek mental health support (Budge et al., 2020 ).
While our study has numerous strengths, including using standardized instruments and a large sample size, this study also has several limitations due to both the methodology and sample. First, the correlational study design precludes making any causal relationships (Misra and McKean, 2000 ). Thereby, our findings should be taken in the context of academic stress and mental well-being, and recognize that mental health could be caused by other non-academic factors. Second, the PAS comprised only the perception of responses to academic stress, but stress is a multi-factorial response that encompasses both perceptions and coping mechanisms to different stressors, and the magnitude of stress varies with the perception of the degree of uncontrollability, unpredictability, or threat to self (Miller, 1981 ; Hobfoll and Walfisch, 1984 ; Lazarus and Folkman, 1984 ; Wheaton, 1985 ; Perrewé and Zellars, 1999 ; Schneiderman et al., 2005 ; Bedewy and Gabriel, 2015 ; Schönfeld et al., 2016 ; Reddy et al., 2018 ; Freire et al., 2020 ; Karyotaki et al., 2020 ). Third, the SWEMSBS used in our study and the data only measured positive mental health. Mental health pathways are numerous and complex, and are composed of distinct and interdependent negative and positive indicators that should be considered together (Margraf et al., 2020 ). Fourth, due to the small effect sizes and unequal representation for different combinations of variables, our analysis for both the PAS and SWEMSBS included only summed-up scales and did not examine group differences in response to the type of academic stressors or individual mental health questions.
An additional limitation is that the participants in our study were a convenience sample. The testing service we used, prolific.co, self-reports a sample bias toward young women of high levels of education (i.e., WEIRD bias) (Team Prolific, 2018 ). The skew toward this population was observed in our data, as 80% of our participants were women. While we controlled for these factors, the possibility remains that the conclusions we draw for certain groups, such as nonbinary students, ethnic/racial minorities, and men, may not be as statistically powerful as they should be. Moreover, our pre-screening was designed to recruit undergraduate level, English-speaking, 18–30-year-olds who resided in the United States. This resulted in our participant demographics being skewed toward the WEIRD bias that was already inherent in the testing service we used. Future research will aim to be more inclusive of diverse races/ethnicities, sexual orientations, languages, educational backgrounds, socioeconomic backgrounds, and first-generation college students.
Another limitation of our study is the nature of satisficing. Satisficing is a response strategy in which a participant answers a question to satisfy its condition with little regard to the quality or accuracy of the answer (Roberts et al., 2019 ). Anonymous participants are more likely to satisfice than respondents who answer the question face-to-face (Krosnick et al., 2002 ). We sought to mitigate satisficing by offering financial incentives to increase response rates and decrease straight-lining, item skipping, total missing items, and non-completion (Cole et al., 2015 ). Concerns of poor data quality due to surveys offering financial incentives found little evidence to support that claim and may do the opposite (Cole et al., 2015 ). On the other hand, social desirability bias may have influenced the participant's self-reported responses, although our anonymous survey design aimed to reduce this bias (Joinson, 1999 ; Kecojevic et al., 2020 ).
Future studies should replicate our study to validate our results, conduct longitudinal cohort studies to examine well-being and perceived academic stress over time, and aim for a more representative student sample that includes various groups, including diverse races/ethnicities, sexual orientations, socioeconomic backgrounds, languages, educational levels, and first-generation college students. Additionally, these studies should consider examining other non-academic stressors and students' coping mechanisms, both of which contribute to mental health and well-being (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984 ; Freire et al., 2020 ). Further explorations of negative and other positive indicators of mental health may offer a broader perspective (Margraf et al., 2020 ). Moreover, future research should consider extending our work by exploring group differences in relation to each factor in the PAS (i.e., academic expectations, workload and examinations, and self-perception of students) and SWEMBS to determine which aspects of academic stress and mental health were most affected and allow for the devising of targeted stress-reduction approaches. Ultimately, we hope our research spurs readers into advocating for greater academic support and access to group-specific mental health resources to reduce the stress levels of college students and improve their mental well-being.
Utilizing two well-established scales, our research found a statistically significant correlation between the perceived academic stress of university students and their mental well-being (i.e., the higher the stress, the worse the well-being). This relationship was most apparent among gender and grade levels. More specifically, non-binary and second-year students experienced greater academic burden and lower psychological well-being. Moreover, women, non-binary students, and upper-level students were disproportionately impacted by stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Studies regarding broad concepts of stress and well-being using a questionnaire are limited, but our study adds value to the understanding of academic stress as a contributor to the overall well-being of college students during this specific point in time (i.e., the COVID-19 pandemic). Competition both for admission to college (Bound et al., 2009 ) and during college (Posselt and Lipson, 2016 ) has increased over time. Further, selective American colleges and universities draw applicants from a global pool. As such, it is important to document the dynamics of academic stress with renewed focus. We hope that our study sparks interest in both exploring and funding in-depth and well-designed psychological studies related to stress in colleges in the future.
Data Availability Statement
The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Board at Rutgers University. The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study.
GB and MB contributed to conceptualization, study design, IRB application, manuscript drafting, and revision. XZ participated in the conceptualization and design of the questionnaires. HB participated in subject recruitment and questionnaire collection. KP contributed to data analysis, table and figure preparation, manuscript drafting, and revision. XM contributed to conceptualization, study design, IRB application, supervision of the project, manuscript drafting, and revision. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.
This study was made possible by a generous donation from the Knights of Columbus East Hanover Chapter in New Jersey.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
The authors wish to thank Shivani Mehta and Varsha Garla for their assistance with the study. We also thank all the participants for their efforts in the completion of the study.
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- A | Conducting and Presenting Research
- 1.1 Why College?
- 1.2 The First Year of College Will Be an Experience
- 1.3 College Culture and Expectations
- 1.4 How Can This Book And This Course Help?
- Where do you go from here?
- 2.1 The Power to Learn
- 2.2 The Motivated Learner
- 2.3 It's All in the Mindset
- 2.4 Learning Preferences
- 2.5 Personality Types and Learning
- 2.6 Applying What You Know about Learning
- 2.7 The Hidden Curriculum
- Career Connection
- 3.1 The Benefits of Time Management
- 3.2 Time Management in College
- 3.3 Procrastination: The Enemy Within
- 3.4 How to Manage Time
- 3.5 Prioritization: Self-Management of What You Do and When You Do It
- 3.6 Goal Setting and Motivation
- 3.7 Enhanced Strategies for Time and Task Management
- 4.1 Defining Values and Setting Goals
- 4.2 Planning Your Degree Path
- 4.3 Making a Plan
- 4.4 Managing Change and the Unexpected
- 5.1 The Nature and Types of Reading
- 5.2 Effective Reading Strategies
- 5.3 Taking Notes
- 6.2 Studying
- 6.3 Test Taking
- 7.1 What Thinking Means
- 7.2 Creative Thinking
- 7.3 Analytical Thinking
- 7.4 Critical Thinking
- 7.5 Problem-Solving
- 7.6 Metacognition
- 7.7 Information Literacy
- 8.1 An Overview of Communication
- 8.2 Purpose of Communication
- 8.3 Communication and Technology
- 8.4 The Context of Communication
- 8.5 Barriers to Effective Communication
- 9.1 What Is Diversity, and Why Is Everybody Talking About It?
- 9.2 Categories of Diversity
- 9.3 Navigating the Diversity Landscape
- 9.4 Inclusivity and Civility: What Role Can I Play?
- 10.1 Personal Financial Planning
- 10.2 Savings, Expenses, and Budgeting
- 10.3 Banking and Emergency Funds
- 10.4 Credit Cards and Other Debt
- 10.5 Education Debt: Paying for College
- 10.6 Defending against Attack: Securing Your Identity and Accounts
- 11.1 Taking Care of Your Physical Health
- 11.3 Taking Care of Your Emotional Health
- 11.4 Taking Care of Your Mental Health
- 11.5 Maintaining Healthy Relationships
- 11.6 Your Safety
- 12.1 Why Worry about a Career While I'm in College?
- 12.2 Your Map to Success: The Career Planning Cycle
- 12.3 Where Can You Go from Here?
- B | Recommended Readings
- C | Activities and Artifacts From the Book
Turning Information into Knowledge
Questions to Consider:
- What is the difference between information and knowledge?
- What is information literacy?
- What are the steps to a good research study?
What Is the Difference between Information and Knowledge?
Life is a series of problems needing solutions. We need to find information that matters and then discover why it matters. Curiosity, then, is a response to an environment of exploration, manifesting in wanting to know “why” or “how.” How do you make sense of the world? How does information translate to knowledge? Connecting ideas, thinking critically, acting responsibly, and communicating effectively are all essential to lifelong learning and active engagement in today’s world. You need to become proficient, ethical users and producers of information in a globally connected world. It is important to be able to reason, manage resources, work productively with others, acquire and evaluate information effectively, organize information, interpret and communicate the information, and work with an ever-evolving variety of technologies. In other words, you need to become information-savvy consumers and producers. You need to be able to adapt to, understand, evaluate, and make use of technology so you can be citizens that shape our society, rather than being its pawns. What you learn is often what you will want to communicate to others.
What Is Information Literacy?
Human beings are passionate, curious, and always seeking to connect with each other and make sense of things. Learning is more effective when new information is meaningful and linked to some personal experience or prior knowledge. Learning is about both context and content. It is necessary to learn how to assess, evaluate, and connect in order to make information become knowledge. Information literacy skills are the hallmark of the ability to do research. What is important is for you to learn how to find information that “matters” and then figure out why it might matter.
Information literacy is a link between the life experiences of you as a student, the academic world of scholarship, and the postcollege real world of application of learning. An information-literate person has the ability to ask questions and knows the difference between ignorance and understanding. (When do I need information?) Information literacy builds a lifelong ability to determine where information is kept (Where is the best place to find this?) and in what forms knowledge is stored (Which knowledge products will likely have what I need?).
Information literacy relies on the use of a critical mind to discern credible from not credible, valid from not valid. It is actually the core of the first-year experience. It lasts, while the specifics of particular courses fade over time. After all, the nature of research, the core of higher education, is a learning process: “How do I learn about something?” Communication skills are essential to your ability to both learn and share what you’ve learned.
What Are the Steps to a Good Research Study?
Research is a part of life. In fact, you conduct research daily. You look things up whenever you want a hotel or a good restaurant in a new city, or a recipe for cookies you’d like to make for a party. Sometimes you use Google for answers, and other times you ask people to help you answer your question. At times you might need to visit specific websites to find good information on the kind of used car you should buy or tickets to a sporting event or concert you hope to attend. All of this is part of research at its most basic level—asking a question and then answering it. Research can be defined as an activity that produces new knowledge. However, it is not timeless. Questions change, and so do answers. New questions bring new light to bear on any topic or issue. For example, consider the way we have controlled the use of pesticides. Over time, we moved from acceptance to shock and now horror at some of the side effects. It is new information on pesticides that has influenced our change in thinking. And the reason we know this information is that someone did the research and then communicated it to our community through newscasts, newspapers, online sites, and so forth.
We often accept ideas as fact. For instance, how do we come to believe such things as “Three out of four dentists recommend . . . ” or “McDonald’s french fries are preferred three to one over . . .”? Or that heroin is addictive, or that putting infants in car seats prevents fatal injuries, or that drinking while pregnant can be harmful? It is important to know that these statements are the result of questions that led to serious research. Understanding the methods used to do research will help us understand how we come to know what we know. In cases such as these, someone was interested in knowing the answer to a particular question, planned a research study, and then published the findings. When people do this kind of research, their purpose is not only to find an answer but also to communicate what they found to the rest of us. They are communicating new knowledge.
Research is exploration and the search for possible answers to questions. Most students think research is about finding answers, but it is more about the questions we ask that lead us to the answers. Good research starts with good questions. Researchers ask themselves a question, create a possible answer in the form of a hypothesis, and then begin a process of gathering information with a methodology. If we understand how important questions are to doing research, we are then better able to determine the credibility and validity of the information sources we use. When evaluating sources, we can ask: Why should I believe this author? What does she know that makes her someone I should pay attention to? And when deciding on credibility, we can ask: What did the author do to convince me his answer is the correct one? Did the evidence really match the question the author was asking? Thus, information literacy is the ability to evaluate sources on the basis of what questions were asked, determine if those are the best questions to ask, assess whether the answers offered really answer the questions, and decide if the author is prepared to answer those questions well. Remember the literacies that Howard Rheingold suggested in the “Communicating” chapter. Using these as guides leads us to mindfully explore the vast array of information available to us. And when we do so, we won’t find ourselves taking information at face value and passing it on as though it were valid, like some of the “fake news” that is prevalent today.
So let’s start the process of doing research. The activity below will help you begin the process. After this, you will be introduced to the simple steps you need to take to do the research and then communicate your findings appropriately.
Pick a topic you might like to research or have already been assigned to research for a class. Then take a close look at the list of knowledge products below, and rank them in order of which ones you would most likely use for a research paper. After ranking them, explain why you put them in that order.
- Books: histories, pictures, topic overviews
- Journals: research studies, expert opinions, analyses, lists of other information sources
- Magazines: basic and recent information, pictures, reviews
- Newspapers: very recent information, place-specific information, reviews
- Films, videos, television, music: pictures, speeches, sound
- Internet sources: current or historical information from a variety of sources or individuals, data or commentary compiled by individuals or specific organizations or companies, graphics, sound, music, animation, video, pictures
- Conversations, interviews: opinions, direct experiences, personal viewpoints, attitudes, histories
- Government publications: reports, studies, statistics, laws, regulations
- Documents: reports, laws, statistics, facts
- Diaries: personal stories, histories, opinions, reflections
These can also categorized by types of knowledge products. For your research, you have to choose wisely among these, too. There are scholarly knowledge products, which are mostly written for scholars in a particular field. The author is identified, and credentials are available. Sources are documented, and technical language is often used. Secondly, some knowledge products might be considered professional . These are written for professionals in a field, the author is most often identified, sources are not always documented, and the language may or may not be technical. Finally, there are popular knowledge products, which communicate a broad range of information. The author is often not identified, sources are often not documented, and language is not technical. Because they are commercial products packaged for wide sales, they often use color and have numerous ads.
When you are faced with a research assignment, it is important for you to be able to create successful search strategies. You need to find sources for specific purposes and audiences and be able to critically evaluate these sources. When doing research, you also have to incorporate the information you find for specific purposes, acknowledge the sources, and provide citations. To make this easier to understand, think of scholarly writing as a simple story told with a particular set of conventions (rules). What are these conventions? They are: a research question, a hypothesis, a methodology, a review of the literature, an interpretation of your work, and an analysis of the significance of what you’ve found.
First of all, you need a topic. This is often the most difficult part of the whole process. So begin by thinking of something that is really interesting to you. Let’s take music for an example. You need to ask some questions about music to start the process. Some examples of questions are:
- What does music mean?
- What is the function of music?
- What is the value of music?
- What is the significance of music?
- How is music made?
- What causes music to happen?
The easiest way to come up with questions regarding whatever topic you choose is to start with basic questioning words: who , what , why , when , where , how , might , could , can , should , will , must , did , and so forth. You can ask better questions, and this will help you narrow down your hypothesis. For instance, why does music change over time? Who will play this music? How did this music come about? Why should we listen to this music?
Pick a topic and try to describe it:
- Name your topic: I am studying __________
- Suggest a question: Because I want to find out who/how/why/whether/when/what _______________
- State a rationale for the question: In order to understand who/what/where/how/why/whether ___________
Going through this exercise every time you are tasked with writing a research paper will help you clarify what you want to accomplish and why.
Scholars use information to answer one or more questions inspired by a topic of interest. Usually, a scholarly question identifies a problem and a solution. Such questions are usually written in the form of a hypothesis, which is a statement about the relationship between two things that identifies both a problem and an answer or solution. An example of a hypothesis would be: Different genres of music have an effect on the mood of the people listening to them. The questions asked to get to this hypothesis might be: Does music have an effect on mood? Do people listen to music to make them feel better? What kind of music is used as a way to energize the listener? Is there one type of music that is better than others for calming someone down?
Your hypothesis must reflect what is known about a research topic in such a way that your research project will add new knowledge and insight to what is already known. In order to arrive at a hypothesis that achieves this goal, you must learn as much as possible about your topic so you can narrow down your hypotheses to what you don’t know. Then your research project will produce new knowledge. Your hypothesis is about what you don’t know . However, you might find that you can’t prove your hypothesis. You might find evidence that contradicts it, and you will have to reflect on why your hypothesis might have been wrong.
Find two newspaper articles to analyze. Read through them and answer the following:
- What questions are being answered in the articles?
- What questions do you think need to be answered?
- What was the hypothesis that the writer of these articles was working from?
It is important to be able to find the hypothesis that a writer has constructed to tell you a story. You have to make sure you understand what they are trying to “prove” and what questions they asked in order to do so.
Education is about discovery. This means that you need to learn how to question, evaluate, and determine the worth, credibility, and relevance of what you, as a student, find. Thus, when doing research, you need that hypothesis to begin the rest of your research.
The next step is to come up with key words or concepts that describe your topic. Start by preparing an outline for yourself. List the key words (for instance, on the topic of music, some key words might be music , instruments , genres , musicians , and so on). Then create a list of narrower terms, which are more specific things that you want to know about your topic, such as time frames , geography , population , and age groups . Finally, you can list broader terms that are the larger subjects that include your key words. For music these could be cultural expression , jazz , hip-hop , singers , and so forth. Your methodology will be a compilation of the sources you decide to review. It is an orderly approach to problem solving and gathering useful data, using such sources and strategies as interviews, public documents, surveys, experiments, the Internet, and many more.
The kind of methodology you decide to use depends on the type of research you will be conducting. You could do exploratory research , which basically answers the question “Does something exist?” This “something” could be an event, a thing, or an idea, such as a concert or music designed for relaxation. Or perhaps you want to do descriptive research , which is the kind of study that defines something by describing its characteristics, behaviors, or actions. For instance, you could describe a genre of music, how it was created, and what instruments are usually used to compose this type of music. A third type of research you may want to do is called prediction research , which involves identifying relationships that make it possible for us to speculate about one thing by knowing about something else. Music has taken many turns over time, and you might want to suggest that the next phase of music might all be electronically produced. And finally, you could choose to do explanatory research . This type of research examines cause-and-effect relationships. For example, there is music created to tell a particular story in a specific manner. This might be true of rap music. To study this, you would use explanatory research to describe this phenomenon.
Review of the Literature
One other piece of the research puzzle is a review of the literature. The literature in a particular field is its discourse , which is actually a conversation over time about a topic. When you do your literature review, you are inserting yourself in the middle of such a conversation and getting information only from that particular time and perspective. For instance, if you want to study the effects of music on children, you will find a wide variety of sources that will give you information about the topic. You will discover that many people have been interested in the issue and have done studies trying to find out the answer. These studies have been done over many years, and the perspectives involved have changed accordingly. The discourse continues over time, and you can insert information into the conversation by conducting your own research.
Thus, a review of the literature finds, evaluates, and integrates past research. It is a critical synthesis of research literature that:
- shows how previous studies relate to one another.
- shows similarities and differences between studies.
- discriminates between relevant and irrelevant information.
- indicates weaknesses in previous work.
The purpose of the literature review is to synthesize many specific events and details into a comprehensive whole. Synthesis results from weaving together many smaller generalizations and interpretations into a coherent main theme. You will find that a literature review is always required of an assigned research paper for a course. The purpose is to enable you to critically analyze a segment of an already published body of knowledge. A comprehensive literature review encompasses the following elements:
- Start the introduction by describing the problem or issue you are addressing, then focus on your research hypotheses or questions.
- Explicitly state the significance of the topic in the introduction.
- Present the review as an essay, not an annotated list.
- Emphasize the findings of previous research you have found.
- Point out the trends and themes in the literature.
- Point out the gaps in the literature.
- Express opinions about the quality and importance of the research you have found.
- Use the review to suggest that there is a need for more study.
You certainly have heard about plagiarism and how important it is not to let yourself participate in it. It is so easy to read through many other people’s work and grab a sentence here and there to put into your own paper. As you’re struggling to come up with ideas, you may also find yourself borrowing from others. Neither of these is a good idea.
Plagiarism often starts with the note-taking stage of the research process. Thus, when taking notes, be sure to distinguish between paraphrases and direct quotations. When you are copying an exact quotation, be extremely precise. Note all the information you will need for the citation. It is a good idea to make a system for yourself, perhaps color coding, when doing your research. Make direct quotations one color and your own paraphrasing of ideas another color. Both quotations and paraphrases need to be cited with sources, both within the paper and at the end.
Learning how to use the ideas of others to add weight to your own ideas involves effort and a commitment to academic honesty. It is not always clear exactly how or when to use sources, and sometimes you might need advice or guidance. Since your professors are most familiar with the expectations of their disciplines, they are the best people to ask. Your college likely offers support in the writing lab or online. If you need more guidance, the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) has a section on safe practices for researching and drafting , where you can find excellent advice on identifying plagiarism and preventing yourself from plagiarizing.
While the process of writing authentically and avoiding plagiarism must be focused from the start, you can avoid a world of trouble by double-checking your near-final work with a source identification site or plagiarism detector. Doing so can help you avoid any unintentional reuse of others’ work and may simply identify a source you forgot to cite. Chegg Writing allows you to upload or paste in your paper for a detailed source evaluation. Note that this is only a check step; you must follow best practices to ensure that you don’t plagiarize.
Validity and Credibility
Before you move on to interpreting your data and addressing the significance of what you found, you need to understand the concepts of validity and credibility. There are many ways you can check the validity of a piece of information. Can you find contradictory or confirmatory data? Can you find evidence that disputes what you are reading? If so, use this information. It is always useful to mention opposing ideas. Ultimately, doing so might strengthen your own ideas. Is the topic within the expertise of the person offering the information? Was the method chosen to convey this information the best method to use? The credibility of the author is another important aspect of checking your sources. In other words, evaluate the authors. Are they experts on the topic? Do they have credentials to write on this particular topic? Has this author written anything else on this topic?
Evidence is the way we show that we are using the experiences, values, research, and perspectives of others. To be information literate is to apply the concepts of subjective and objective evidence to our selection, use, and evaluation of information. When we read a website or view a television program, can we recognize that a particular set of values and perspectives is being used? Are we able to identify when evidence is being used? Can we determine that the evidence being used shows a relevant connection between values, perspectives, and conclusions? Are enough different values and perspectives being presented that the conclusions can be considered objective? It is important to learn how to determine the validity and credibility of sources.
The Internet presents its own challenges when it comes to discovering valid and credible information. When looking at a website, you should be able to answer the following questions: Who is responsible for the site (i.e., who is the author)? What can you find out about the responsible party? Where does the site’s information come from (e.g., opinions, facts, documents, quotes, excerpts)? What are the key concepts, issues, and “facts” on the site? And finally, can the key elements of the site be verified by another site or source? In other words, if you want to find some information online, you shouldn’t just Google the topic and then depend on the first website that pops up.
For certain topics and types of information, you may need to dig deeper. Take into account the funding behind a website. Look up the author, and see if they have written anything else and if there are any obvious biases present in that writing. As an example, if you find a website about vaccinations and autism, and this website was put up by a parent group that opposes vaccinations, you have found information that has biases built in from the start. The point of view presented is most likely one-sided, and thus you need to look for more balanced sources to learn if there is in fact some relationship between childhood vaccinations and the onset of autism. This is just an example; you can find sources ranging from reasonably trustworthy to totally untrustworthy on any topic.
Interpretation is the task of drawing inferences from the facts that you collect in your research. It is a search for the broader meaning of your research findings. This is where you try to make sense of what you discovered. In this part of your research, you should discuss the most important knowledge you gained about your topic from your sources. Here is where you go back to your hypothesis and research questions to discuss your findings and whether or not your hypothesis is correct.
Remember that earlier it was stated, “Life is a series of problems needing solutions.” Consequently, an increased amount of inquiry leads to progress as we continue to expand our knowledge base on a variety of topics. Whatever you find in your research study has significance, as it adds to our knowledge in a particular area. In this section of your writing, it is important to describe the process by which you located your information and then provide advice to other researchers on how to effectively and efficiently find information on this topic. This allows for the continuation of inquiry and the development of more data and knowledge. This is where you communicate to others the new knowledge you discover in your research.
I Did the Research—How Do I Present It?
- How do I communicate my research findings?
- What are the elements of a good oral presentation?
- How do I successfully prepare a visual presentation?
When giving an oral presentation, you should pay special attention to voice, body, and attitude. If you take the following tips into consideration, you should do a fine job of conveying your ideas to an audience.
Voice is more than the sum of the noises you make as you speak. Pay attention to inflection, which is the change in pitch or loudness of your voice. You can deliberately use inflection to make a point, to get people’s attention, or to make it very obvious that what you are saying right now is important. You can also change the volume of your voice. Speak too softly, and people will think you are shy or unwilling to share your ideas; speak too loudly, and people will think you are shouting at them. Control your volume to fit the audience.
Some people have a tendency to rush through their presentations . This means they speed up their speech, and the audience has a difficult time following along. Take care to control the speed at which you give a presentation so that everyone can listen comfortably. Also, to add to the comfort of the listeners, it is always nice to use a conversational tone in a presentation.
This includes such components as stance, gesture, and eye contact—in other words, overall body language. How do you stand when you are giving a presentation? Do you move around and fidget? Do you look down at the ground or stare at your note cards? Are you chewing gum or sticking your hands in and out of your pockets nervously? Obviously, you don’t want to do any of these things. Make eye contact as often as possible. Stand in a comfortable manner, but don’t fidget. Use gestures sparingly to make certain points.
Attitude is everything. Your enthusiasm for your presentation will prime the audience. If you are bored by your own words, the audience will be yawning. If you are jazzed by what you have to offer, they will sit up in their seats and listen intently. Also, be interested in your audience. Let them know that you are excited to share your ideas with them because they are worth your effort.
You might also think about using technology to make your presentation. Perhaps you will do a slide presentation in addition to orally communicating your ideas to your class or another group. Keep in mind that the best presentations are those with minimal words or pictures on the screen, just enough to illustrate the information conveyed in your oral presentation. Do a search on lecture slides or presentation slides to find myriad suggestions on how to create them effectively. You may also create videos to communicate what you found in your research. Today, there are many different ways to take the information you found and create something memorable with which to share your knowledge.
When you are making a presentation that includes a visual component, pay attention to three elements: design, method, and function.
The design includes such elements as size, shape, color, scale, and contrast. You have a vast array of options for designing a background or structuring the visual part of your presentation, whether online or offline.
The method is how you visually present your ideas. Will it be better to show your ideas by drawing a picture, including a photograph, using clip art, or showing a video? Or will it be more powerful to depict your ideas through a range of colors or shapes? These decisions you make will alter the impact of your presentation. Will you present your ideas literally, as with a photograph, or in the abstract, as in some artistic rendition of an idea? For instance, if you decide to introduce your ideas symbolically, a picture of a pond surrounded by tall trees may be the best way to present the concept of a calm person.
The function is the purpose of the visual part of your presentation. Are you telling a story? Communicating a message? Creating movement for the audience to follow? Summarizing an idea? Motivating people to agree with an idea? Supporting and confirming what you are telling your audience? Knowing the function of the visual element of your presentation will make your decisions about design and method more meaningful and successful.
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Psychology Research Paper Topics Ideas for Your Next Assignment
Updated Aug 2021
Psychology research papers are some of the most intriguing writing assignments, but they can be pretty daunting to complete. Studying the human mind and behavior is just as fascinating as it is complicated.
Are you having a tough time picking a single idea for your psychology research paper topic? No wonder since psychology encompasses many different disciplines, such as social, experimental, educational, cognitive, developmental, and forensic psychology, to name but a few.
Even after you pinpoint the psychology branch you’d like to tackle in your writing project, regardless of whether you choose to pay to write research paper or complete it on your own, there’s an abundance of topics you can dive into. How can you make the right choice and ensure you’ll captivate the reader? Which topic could bring more value to the community?
This comprehensive list of psychology research topics can give you an idea. Read on to explore some helpful tips for picking a good topic and writing your paper before checking out some of the most interesting topics you could use.
Psychology Research Paper: Definition and Writing Tips for Psychology Research Papers
Psychology research papers aim to inform the reader about new ideas, experiments, or theories regarding the human mind and behavior. They present the latest developments in psychology and provide facts supported by statistical data and other hard evidence.
As such, psychology research papers require extensive research. Fortunately, hundreds of psychology papers get published every year, so there’s a world of excellent sources out there to help you get the hang of your writing.
How to write a high-quality psychology research paper? Here are some general tips to follow:
- Find an interesting topic - You need to find an engaging topic that interests you because that’s how you’ll have the necessary motivation to explore it. Whether that has to do with sociology research topics , clinical psychology, or any other branch, make sure you feel passionate about it.
- Explore different ideas - Whether you have several or no ideas at all, check out relevant literature and other reliable sources, including recent publications in online psychology journals. Gather and evaluate relevant facts before narrowing down your focus to a single idea.
- Conduct extensive research - Once you have your topic and main idea, find as many reliable sources as possible to provide factual knowledge and support all your claims.
- Write an outline - An outline with a clear hypothesis will help you ensure your paper will have a good flow.
- Hook the reader right off the bat - Propose an intriguing question or argument, or make a shocking revelation in the introduction. Grab the reader’s attention and compel them to keep reading.
- Make your writing informative, inspiring, and impeccable - Use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, formatting, style, and language to showcase professionalism.
- Cite all your sources - Use proper citations for all the references to credit the original authors and avoid plagiarism. Include in-text citations and make a reference list at the end of your paper.
How to Choose Good Psychology Research Paper Topics
Choosing a good topic for a psychology research paper comes down to thorough research. Here’s what you need to do to gather relevant information and pick right:
- Brainstorm ideas - Pick a psychology branch and think about what interests you the most about it. Come up with several exciting ideas you could explore.
- Do your research - Hit the books and head to reliable online sources to sift through recent academic publications and news articles to find relevant topics for your desired ideas.
- Narrow down your focus - Read up on different topics to find the right one that comes with plenty of credible sources to support your hypothesis. For instance, if you’re interested in communications research topics , you can go with intercultural communication and write about how language connects different cultures.
- Avoid general or too narrow topics - Focus on something specific, but don’t narrow it down too much because you might fail to engage the reader and offer real value.
Research Topics In Psychology For College Students
Considering how diverse psychology is, there’s no doubt that every student will be able to find an interesting topic for their research paper. If you ever feel overwhelmed by the number of easy topics ideas for your undergraduate research, don’t. Many good papers on psychology have already been written, which is why it is easy for you to find an easily researchable topic for your educational assignment. There’s nothing hard about writing a custom research paper about mental health, so remember to stay positive.
- Gender roles in modern society
- Factors contributing to children’s school performance
- Prejudice and discrimination
- Religion in social psychology
- Physical illnesses and psychological health
- ADHD within family systems
- Asexuality as sexual orientation
- Narcissism in modern society
- What causes schizophrenia?
- How school anxiety affects teens?
Social Psychology Research Topics
Studying social psychology may be hard but interesting because such paper topics usually concern our daily lives. We wanted you not to struggle while choosing a paper topic, so here’s the list of the best psychology research topics in this field.
- Cognitive dissonance
- Persuasion in modern advertisement
- Corporal punishment and criminal activity
- The Halo effect in popular culture
- Experimental social psychology
- Does social media promote conformity or individualism?
- Correlation between Pavlov’s conditioning in advertising
- “Fear of happiness” in modern society
- National identity
Clinical Psychology Research Topics
Clinical psychology, while complicated, is a very interesting science branch. When it comes to its examination, students often can’t choose appropriate psychology research topics. From therapy types to childhood disorders, there are interesting topics for anyone.
- Childhood neurosis effects on adult mental health
- Compare two therapy types
- Effects of anxiety disorder on one’s daily life
- Childhood trauma, its effects in adulthood
- Mental health issues in adolescents
- Effects of “pro-ana” websites on eating disorder rates
- Risk factors associated with eating disorders
- Therapy for childhood behavioral disorders
- Correlation between violence in media and childhood behavior
- Social media addiction
Experimental Psychology Research Topics
Experimental psychology may probably be the most engaging study of the human mind. Besides, the results of psychological tests can be used to improve our understanding of certain behaviors. In college, we can start by choosing experimental psychology topics for our written assignments.
- Does color affect mood?
- Does color affect appetite?
- Can colors affect academic performance?
- Physiological responses to music
- Does social media cause addiction?
- Can facial symmetry cause attraction?
- Correlation between gender and memory
- What causes differences in people seeing optical illusions?
- What causes conformity in groups?
- Is music taste affected by personality traits?
Child Psychology Research Topics
We all know that there are many factors that influence psychological children's development. Although we can’t always prevent the development of abnormalities, we can study child psychology, which can help in the long run. Check out the child psychology research topics below for your next assignment.
- Attachment theory
- Social interaction in children
- Effects of children facing loss at a young age on psychological development
- Gender-differentiated toys in the advertisement
- The impact of color on a child’s development
- How children perceive aggression
- Cognitive processes in young children
- Do make-believe games affect socialization?
- Socio-emotional growth at an early age
- Effects of play on a child’s development
Developmental Psychology Research Topics
There’s no doubt you have, at some point, wondered which events in your childhood shaped you into the person you became today. Developmental psychology studies exactly that. Besides being an interesting topic of scientific research, it also is useful for our understanding of the family's role in one’s development.
- What affects the language acquisition process?
- Parenting style’s effect on a child’s physical, psychological development
- How bullying affects one’s development
- Does birth order define procrastination?
- Short-term memory limits at various stages in life
- Reinforcement in the learning environment
- What affects a child’s food choices?
- Correlation between listening to music and academic performance
- Permissive vs. authoritative parents
- Does self-efficacy affect long-term memory?
Abnormal Psychology Research Topics
It is critical that we study mental disorders to improve society. Abnormal psychology allows scientists to understand psychological disorders, their causes, and their effects. Because of the improvements caused by such analysis, we believe that you should take a look at these research topics.
- Seasonal affective disorder
- Correlation between eating disorders and anxiety disorders
- Phobias caused by childhood traumas
- Group therapy vs. cognitive behavioral therapy
- Psychoanalytic therapy: history, development
- Borderline personality disorder
- Major depressive disorder
- Antisocial personality disorder
Cognitive Psychology Research Topics
Understanding how the human mind works is fascinating, which is why you should probably study cognitive psychology. If you’ve given an assignment on the topic in college, look no further. We have gathered the most exciting cognitive psychology research topics in the list below.
- Does sport affect attention?
- Applied research in cognition
- A theme of memory in popular culture
- Consciousness and cognition
- Narrative psychology
- Development of problem-solving skills
- Decision-making processes
- Role of cognitive neuroscience in AI development
- Theories of cognition
- How cognition relates to perception?
Forensic Psychology Research Paper Topics
Many people are passionate about forensics, which is why they will also find forensic psychology interesting. When it comes to the below topics, many of them are of critical importance in modern society. If you want to impress your professor, be sure to check them out.
- Psychological evaluation in a court trial
- AMBER Alert system in social psychology
- Early signs of serial killers
- Juvenile offenders and corporal punishment
- Psychopathy in criminal behaviors
- Antisocial personality disorder in forensic examination
- Domestic violence against men
- Does a career in law enforcement affect social life?
- Effects of upbringing on serial killers
- Special needs education in the prevention of criminal behavior
Controversial Topics In Psychology For Research Paper
Many of us have strong opinions about different topics. However, that doesn’t mean that there’s one side to each story. Psychology can be controversial, and some of the below topics may help you think twice about what you were sure about before.
- Is civil marriage a marriage?
- Abortion: pro-choice or pro-life?
- Is homeopathy a fraud?
- Can convicted individuals become ordinary citizens?
- Single parents in modern society
- Teenage parents and a child’s development
- Single-sex schools and socio-emotional development
- Legalization of prostitution
- Surrogate motherhood or adoption: ethical dilemmas
- Veganism in psychology
Criminal Psychology Research Topics
Understanding what causes criminal behavior on a psychological level can help us prevent it. Criminal psychology is not only interesting but also valuable science. Below, you’ll find some examples of criminal psychology research topics for your college assignments.
- Mental illness and the death penalty
- Competence to stand trial
- Prejudice in jury selection
- Prison system and rehabilitation
- The effects of social media on copycat crimes
- Causes and effects of mass school shootings
- Psychological disorders and incarceration
- Socioeconomic status and criminal behavior
- Social environment and aggression
- Incarceration rates and education
Cultural Psychology Research Paper Topics
It should come as no surprise that our actions and beliefs are greatly affected by our cultures. When it comes to cultural psychology, science helps us understand how exactly that happens. Culture and behavior are closely related, which is why we believe you should never underestimate cultural psychology.
- Social media in different cultures
- Effects of culture on online shopping
- Regional humor peculiarities
- Hollywood and modern perception of beauty
- Cultural psychology and multinational businesses
- Research in cultural psychology
- Perception of motherhood in various cultures
- Cultural models
- Culture and self-education
- Whiting model
Health Psychology Research Topics
When we speak about health, we often only focus on its physical aspects. Unfortunately, that’s not the best approach. Health psychology is multidimensional and valuable for our understanding of psychology in healthcare.
- Eating disorders and physical health
- Popular culture and anorexia rates
- Causes of increased teen suicide rates
- Mending disaster aftermath: social and health psychology
- Smoking cessation strategies
- Safety equipment promotion in modern society
- Stress management and relaxation
- PTSD among veterans
- Psychological effects of caregiving
- Promoting childhood immunization
Neuropsychology Research Paper Topics
Neuroscience and psychology may be equally different but also equally interesting. Knowing how and why our nervous system affects our behavior is incredibly valuable. Below, you’ll find some of the best topics for your neuropsychology research in college.
- Music and learning disorder treatment
- Representation of pronouns and self-perception
- Theory of mind
- Neuropsychological data and ADHD treatment
- Relationship with choice and impulsivity
- What is pre-choice computation?
- Cognitive impairment and iron deficiency
- Neuropsychological testing in patients with dementia
- Nonverbal neuropsychology and IQ testing
- Experimental dual-task studies
Personality Psychology Research Topics
As people, we all are different, and personality psychology research topics may help you understand, why. Knowing how our personalities interact and why they are different will greatly help you in life. Besides, it can actually help you receive a high grade in college.
- Correlation between temperament and creativity
- Traits linked to prosocial behavior
- Comparison of personality assessments
- Correlation between personality types and music preferences
- Athletics and personality traits
- Social media and personality
- Effects of Type A behavior on academic success
- Art preferences and personality
- What causes low self-esteem in teens?
- Effects and causes of high self-efficacy
Sports Psychology Research Topics
Nowadays, you probably can’t find a person who doesn’t like sports. What makes the hobby even more interesting is that the human mind is closely related to one’s physical activity and athletic performance. Because of this, we believe that sports psychology should be of interest to college students.
- Effects of sports on personality traits
- Neuro-linguistic programming and performance
- Gender studies in sport psychology
- Effects of family psychology on athletic performance
- Psychological recovery after trauma
- Aggression in sports
- Self-image and athletic performance
- Families of athletes and childhood development
- Doping in sports: psychological point of view
- Emotions and personality traits in sports
Educational Psychology Topics
Educational psychology is diverse and encompasses many other disciplines, including cognitive, behavioral, and developmental psychology. That’s why it can be challenging to select the right educational psychology topic. Here are some of the most captivating you could use.
- The inclusion of students with dyslexia
- School bullying and victimization
- The theory of operant conditioning
- Self-esteem, self-confidence, and academic success
- The effect of music on cognitive performance
- Motivation and learning strategies
- The impact of rewards, recognition, and motivation on student achievement
- The impact of parenting styles on academic achievement and career choices
- Affection and social behavior in teaching planning
- Are achievement gaps related to discipline gaps?
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200 Easy Research Paper Topics for College Students in 2021
Writing research papers is a must-do step in any educational process at college. In many cases, professors allow students to be creative with choosing a topic to complete this type of academic assignment. This privilege usually sounds great at first glance. However, thousands of learners might feel overwhelmed with a wide choice of interesting research topics they can find online.
The truth is that you can easily get lost in countless research paper topics available on different websites. Moreover, exploring and narrowing down the solutions for your essay might appear too challenging. The reason is that many research topics for college available online are outdated or contain too broad concepts for the research. To make your investigation process easier, we’ve collected a list of 200 new and innovative topics for composing an impressive research essay, presentation, or report. No worries if you have little writing experience or creativity - this guide will help you choose a fresh solution for your assignments in no time.
How to Choose Research Study Ideas for College Students
If the professor gives you complete freedom to pick up a topic, we have good news for you. Now, you can select a field or niche according to your individual preferences and background knowledge! There is no need to compose a boring paper that will make you yawn during the entire writing process. However, make sure you follow some basic rules of choosing good research paper topics below.
Stick to Your Favorite Topic
Are you fond of cars? Feel free to research the benefits and drawbacks of electric automobiles. Can’t imagine your life without sports? Explore the dope issue in professional sports. The key to developing a successful paper is to write about the topic that makes you feel excited. If you write about something you show zero interest in, the process will likely slow down and become more challenging. Therefore, always try to find something inspiring.
Choose Understandable Solutions
Many students are interested in modern technologies or space exploration. However, writing on these topics requires having advanced knowledge in the corresponding areas. Still, few learners can boast of having a deep understanding of artificial intelligence, computer programming, or space technologies. That is why it is better to look for easier and more comprehensive topics to write about. As a result, you will reduce the amount of time for research and cope with the college task faster.
Make Sure You Will Find Enough Information
When choosing ideas for a research paper, you need to make sure there are at least several reliable sources you can use for researching. The fact is that if you pick a truly out-of-the-box solution, you might fail to find enough relevant information about it. The same rule works for outdated topics. In case you select a played-out idea, you will hardly find new and up-to-date sources to support your idea. Here is a little hint for you: if you are looking for the relevant information for a chosen idea but fail to find anything suitable, it is better to change your topic.
Look for Clear and Understandable Concepts and Issues
When searching for the best research paper topics, don’t forget to think about your audience. What does it mean? The fact is that it is necessary to pick up a solution that is completely understandable for both you and the readers. In other words, avoid sticking to extremely difficult or complex topics that might make your audience feel confused. In case you use some specific terms in your paper that might be unfamiliar to the common reader, it is better to explain them briefly.
Try to Be Specific
Picking up too broad topics for research papers is one of the most common mistakes of hundreds of students. To avoid this issue, it is better to stay away from too general solutions that can be described from dozens of sides. Otherwise, you might go down in tons of diverse data and arguments you can use for your paper. Being precise and choosing only the most powerful facts are among the features of any successful student.
Look For Something Unique
Picking up topics for a research paper some of your classmates are also writing about is never the best choice. It is better to select an idea you will be able to describe from an unusual perspective. If you prefer to cover simple and comprehensive topics, it will be great to try an innovative approach to describing facts. However, don’t experiment with the paper’s structure and focus on providing exclusive and original arguments only. The best research academic papers are intriguing and inspiring.
Be In Trend
There is nothing new that trendy topics attract more attention from the audience. The reason is that they have a huge unexplored potential and amazing research opportunities. If you pick up an emerging topic, you will likely get higher grades for your academic assignment.
Simple Research Topics: Education
If you are still wondering which idea is the best one for composing your research paper, it might be good to write about education . The truth is that this topic is one of the easiest to write about. Moreover, you will effortlessly find countless relevant sources to support your ideas related to education. Feel free to grab one of these handy solutions you can put into practice when writing your academic paper.
- Are Standardized Tests Good to Evaluate the Student’s Knowledge?
- How to Make Education More Accessible for Students With Disabilities?
- Should Tuition Become Free at All Colleges in the United States?
- How Can Schools and Colleges Support International Students?
- Becoming a Student and a Successful Businessman: Is It Possible?
- The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Education Sector
- The Benefits of Social Networking at College and University
- The Innovations in the Education System of the United States
- Is It Possible to Start Building a Career During Studies?
- How Can Schools Stop Violence Among Students?
- Should American Learners Have a “Gap Year”?
- The Analysis of the Finnish Education System
- Homeschooling vs. Learning in the Classroom
- British vs. American Education Systems
- The Teaching Technologies of the Future
- Should College Students Have a Part-Time Job?
- Is There Any Discrimination at High Schools?
- Should Schools Have Sexual Education Lessons?
- Most Common Issues of Bilingual Education
- Why Do Students Need to Learn Religion at School?
- How to Stop Cheating on Exams
- Student Loans: Pros and Cons
- The Pros and Cons of Same-Sex Classrooms
- The Development of Women’s Right to Education
- Montessori Method: Advantages and Drawbacks
- Effective Ways to Improve the Quality of Teaching
- How Can the Issue of “Useless Classes” Be Solved?
- Should Colleges Become Business-Driven?
- How to Improve Modern Elementary Education?
- Should School Children Wear Uniforms?
- How to Stop Hazing at High Schools?
Unique Research Topics on Health
To put it short, these solutions remain topical among young learners for years. If you would like to select a comprehensive and brilliant solution for your research paper, choosing topics related to health might help you finish your essay fast. What to research? Here is a list of ideas you can start writing about right now.
- The Impact of Drugs on the Human Body
- How to Stop Consuming Too Much Junk Food?
- How Much Fruit and Vegetables Should a Common Student Consume per Day?
- The Correlation Between Mood and the Health of the Immune System
- Is It Possible to Stop the COVID-19 Spread in All Countries?
- Why Do Many Girls Suffer From Anorexia During Their Studies?
- The Mental Issues of the Most Well-Known Criminals
- The Impact of Classical Music on Overall Well-Being
- Main Reasons for Facing Serious Allergies
- The Importance of Regular Health Screenings
- Ways to Prevent Serious Mental Diseases
- Kids’ Vaccination: Advantages and Risks
- Birth Control Issues in Developed Countries
- The Impact of Breastfeeding on the Kids’ Health
- The Impact of Insomnia on the Quality of Life
- Most Effective Ways to Control Obesity
- Top Reasons to Consume More Fats Regularly
- Artificial Vitamins: Should Everyone Consume Them?
- The Role of Nutrition for Maintaining Brain Health
- How to Decrease Stress Levels of Teenagers
- The Pros and Cons of Reconstructive Surgery
- Acupuncture: The Hidden Health Benefits
- The Most Important Aspects of Neonatal Nutrition
- Impact of Emotional Stability on Human Health
- Uncommon Solutions to Improve Short-Term Memory
- Should Elementary Schools Have Homework?
- The Psychology of Gifted People
- Top Issues of Cardiovascular Care
- How to Keep Your Brain Healthy
- The Impact of Sports on Human Health
- The Future of Natural Medicine
- New Strategies for Coma Recovery
- Basic Rules of Sun Safety
- The Dangers of Low-Fat Diets
- The Future of Antibiotics Therapies
- Pros and Cons of Dietary Supplements
- Non-Medical Cancer Treatments
- Most Effective Ways to Make Your Brain Work Harder
- Religion and Health
- Benefits of Swimming
- Eating Disorders
Easy Research Paper Topics: Environment
If you would like to follow the path of Greta Thunberg, it might be good to start your way with composing papers related to environment protection and ecology. Explore the main issues in this field and come up with an impressive research paper in a matter of a couple of hours.
- The Main Dangers of Air Pollution
- Greenhouse Effect: Myths vs. Reality
- Ways to Stop Marine Pollution
- Advantages and Drawbacks of Using Pesticides in Agriculture
- GMO Products vs. Organic Food
- The Importance of “Green Programs” in Developing Countries
- The Problem of Radioactive Waste Disposal
- Should Environmental Regulations Become Stricter?
- Is the Problem of Global Warming Exaggerated?
- The Problem of Water Deficit in Developing Countries
- Ways to Protect Endangered Wildlife
- How Can an Individual Help Save an Environment?
- Why Should Children Learn About Global Warming?
- The Advantages of Solar Technologies
- The Main Dangers of Producing Too Much Plastic
- How to Start Using Eco-Friendly Products?
- The Changes in the Climate of Earth in the 21st Century
- The Analysis of the Deforestation Levels in South America
- How to Improve Access to Clean Water in All Countries Globally?
- Is It Possible to Manage Overpopulation?
- The Prospects of Nuclear Energy
Interesting Topics to Research: Technology and Media
Modern technologies are developing at a breakneck speed. The new solutions, apps, and approaches revolutionize different industries and elevate the quality of lives of millions of people. If you choose a nice solution about innovation and computing for your essay, you will definitely have a chance to attract the attention of the audience. Top research papers topics ideas are right here below!
- The Possible Ways to Develop Artificial Intelligence Systems
- How Will Smartphones Change in the Near Future?
- The Benefits of Cloud Solutions in Storing Data
- Top Areas to Use Drone Technologies
- Ecommerce Solutions vs. Local Retailers
- Online Currencies and Their Impact on the Global Financial System
- How to Avoid the Dangers of the Dark Web?
- Will Self-Driving Cars Become Common in the Future?
- Privacy Issues Online
- The Future of Blogging
- Online vs. Offline Communication
- Will People Colonize Mars?
- Nanomedicine: Myths and Realities
- Online Payments and Paper Money
- Breaking the Sound Barrier
- Is Social Media a New Technology?
- Technologies That Might Impact Human Behavior
- Safest Ways to Store Information in the 21st Century
- How Do Modern Technologies Allow People to Work From Home?
- The Impact of Modern Technologies on Globalization
- The Perspectives of Online Gaming
- The Impact of Advertisements on Kids and Teens
- Newest Technologies Used in Surgery
- Internet Addiction and the Ways to Prevent It
- Censorship Control
Top Solutions Related to Business and Economy
Many students are looking for research papers topics for college-related to the economy, e-commerce, and business. If you are one of them, explore this ultimate list of the newest ideas related to these popular spheres.
- Most Effective Ways to Improve the Economy of the Developed Countries
- How to Start Your Business in E-Commerce
- Modern Ways to Manage Inflation
- How to Fight Poverty and Hunger
- The Role of Taxes in the Modern Economy
- How Did Industrialization Change the World?
- International Tourism During the Pandemic Times
- Industries That Were Impacted by the COVID-19 Crisis
- The Correlation Between Culture and Economic Growth
- How Can Immigration Impact the Country’s Economy?
- The Global Pandemic and Employment Rates
- Role of a Leader in Modern Business
- Choosing the Best Work Environment
- The Impact of Corporate Culture on the Employment Rate
- How to Set Up Effective Business Links?
- The Most Common Issue of Taxation of Small Businesses
- The Advantages of a Four-Day Workweek
- How to Stop Discrimination at the Workplace?
- Drawbacks of Using Unethical Business Practices
- Social Media Ads to Promote Small Businesses
- How to Improve the Effectiveness of a Human Resource Department?
- Why Do Companies Attract International Investors?
- Most Effective Types of Business Models
- How to Become More Competitive in a Chosen Market?
- Government Regulations and Business
- Basic Reasons to Increase the Minimum Wage in the United States
- Most Promising Business Ideas for the Near Future
Hot Topics for Research Paper: Family and Communication
Family is an essential part of our lives. How to set up healthy family relationships? What is the role of parents in raising children? Feel free to use any of these ideas for your research paper. By the way, good research topics related to communication are also collected in this paragraph.
- Marital Rape and Its Impact on the Personality
- Impact of Divorce on Kids and Teens
- How to Stop Abusive Relationships?
- How to Make Your Children Happier?
- Effective Ways to Solve Conflicts in Families
- How to Improve Communication Between Siblings?
- Role of Grandparents in Raising Children
- Lack of Communication Between Family Members
- Why Do Children Kill Abusive Parents?
- The Impact of Parents’ Depression on Their Children
- Happy Childhood and Leadership
- Advantages of Having a Big Family
- Drugs and Alcoholism in Modern Families
- Impact of Home Life on Child Development
- Do All Children Need to Respect Their Parents?
- The Criticism of Freud’s Theories
- Important Parental Rights
- Gender Roles in the Family
- Basic Family Values
- Domestic Abuse
Easy and Interesting Research Paper Topics
Many students face difficulties when choosing an idea for composing an academic paper. If you are not good at writing on education, health, business, or family relationships, it might be great to search for something more exciting. Here is a list of diverse topics you might find good-looking.
- The Role of International Health Organizations in Modern Society
- Corporate and Business Laws: Most Common Issues
- Why Do Many People Watch TV Shows and Series?
- Future of Chinese Economy
- The Future of Video Streaming Services
- Women’s Rights in the Modern World
- How to Support Global Peacekeeping
- Gender Stereotypes in Advertising
- Classical Hollywood Cinema
- Landmark Court Decisions
- Possible Ways to Use 3d Printers
- Portrayals of Superheroes in Movies
- Cannabis Legalization: Pros and Cons
- Should Companies Stop Animal Testing?
- Criminalizing Protests
- Socialism vs. Capitalism
- How Has Feminism Changed Over the Years?
- Origins of Racial Discrimination
- Should Modern People Read More?
- Top Effective Promotion Solutions for Startups
- Crowdfunding & Outsourcing
- Policies That Are Related to Transgenders
- Role of Cultural Revolutions
- How to Decrease Crime Rates in Big Cities?
- What Are the Benefits and Drawbacks of Fracking?
- Freedom of Religion: Basic Issues
- Body Cameras for Police Officers: Pros and Cons
- Should Penalties for Drunk Driving Become Stricter?
- Abstinence Program: Do They Truly Work?
- The Importance of Writing Research Papers at Colleges
- Effective Techniques to Erase Bad Memories
- Ways to Solve the Immigration Crisis
- Stereotypes in Modern Culture
- Gun Safety and Control Policies
Top Tips to Writing a Winning Research Paper
Picking up an excellent topic is only about 20% of the job you need to do to compose a flawless research paper. What’s next? Are there any prompts that might help you finish your assignment in no time? Sure! Our experts are ready to share some secrets on composing fantastic essays within the shortest terms.
Double-Check the Professor’s Instructions
The secret truth is that there are many types of research papers you might face during your studies. Consequently, these papers might have different requirements and writing rules you need to follow. How to find out how to compose your essay? The easiest way to discover all details is to read the instructions shared by the professor. Although it is a must step all students need to do before they start writing, many learners often forget about this easy rule. By the way, what information can you find in the college writing instructions? As a rule, you will find these types of data:
- deadlines for completing assignments;
- formatting styles;
- the tone of voice you need to use;
- assignment goals;
- length specifications;
- list of topics;
- key features for your writing;
- submission method;
- most common mistakes you need to avoid.
It is recommended to read the instructions at least a couple of times to make sure you understand all the requirements and specifications of your research paper. Avoid starting to write your essay before you’ve learned its basic rules.
Many students are very confident about their research and writing skills. Therefore, thousands of learners still believe they can effortlessly develop a top-notch research paper in just a couple of hours. However, even professional writers can’t compose a superior 3000-word essay in just an hour.
Therefore, it is vital to be realistic when setting up your individual deadlines and creating writing schedules to cope with your academic assignments. Even if you choose current research topics that are incredibly easy to write about, you will still need to do advanced research, choose trustworthy sources, and pick up the most impressive arguments for your paper. All these tasks might take you plenty of time.
It is also not recommended to write research papers at the last moment. First, you might fail to meet the deadline. Second, you might easily come up with poor quality writing because of being unattentive. Third, you will hardly have enough time to proofread and edit your essay. Fourth, when in a hurry, you might copy and paste data from different sources into your paper. This will inevitably lead to extremely high plagiarism levels. All these issues might lead to receiving low grades for your academic assignment.
Follow the Rules
There are many writing rules you will need to follow. However, the basic one is to choose a traditional structure of an academic paper. In other words, your research paper will need to have an introduction, body paragraphs, and the conclusion. Avoid being creative when choosing the structure of your paper - it is the worst place for showing off your innovation. If you would like to stand out from the crowd of other learners, it is better to select an out-of-the-box topic for your assignment.
Proofread and Edit Your Paper
Many students are so tired of doing the research and writing that they often forget to proofread their papers. However, this is an important step in completing any type of academic assignment. If you proofread your essay, you can easily detect dozens of inconsistencies, mistakes, and typos. Moreover, you can also find some repetitive phrases, sentences, or facts in your paper. All these issues can drastically worsen your quality of writing. Even if you are sure your writing is 100% excellent, make sure to proofread it before passing it to the professor.
Plagiarism is a true nightmare of any diligent student. How to avoid this serious issue when composing your academic paper? First, make sure to share the results of your analysis uniquely and uncommonly. Second, use citations carefully. Third, check your essay for plagiarism online! You can find dozens of plagiarism detecting tools and utilities designed for students on many websites. Feel free to use a couple of solutions to make sure your essay is fresh and original. If you suddenly find out your paper has a high plagiarism level, make sure to make significant modifications and be more original. After that, double-check your essay once again.
The Best Way to Get a Perfect Research Paper
There are plenty of important research topics you can use in your academic writing. But what if you’ve chosen a great idea but fail to compose a unique and flawless paper? Is there any solution if you don’t have enough time to meet the professor's deadline? Sure!
Thousands of students fail to deliver college or university assignments on time. The reasons for this issue might significantly vary. Some learners are not skilled writers, while others might not have a deep understanding of the chosen field. Moreover, many students are trying to build careers or dedicate all their free time to sports. Anyway, failure to meet deadlines might worsen the student’s academic performance and other problems related to studies. The good news is that you can avoid facing all these issues!
Our professional writers are always ready to help you complete any type of research paper within the shortest terms. You don’t need to provide any reasons for asking for writing help - we understand the students’ pain and can provide you with pro assistance anytime. Just place an order on our website, choose the deadline, and forget about all your learning issues. You will get a perfectly written academic paper right when you need it. We have thousands of happy customers and impressive guarantees, so you can always trust our service. We value each customer and always deliver superior papers to each of our clients.
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- August 5, 2020
- By Homework Help Global
250 Research Topics For College Students That Will Get Your Brainstorming Juices Flowing
Looking for a big list of research topics for college students? You’ve come to the right place.
With a world of options at your fingertips thanks to the internet, it’s easy to fall victim to “overwhelmed with options” syndrome. It’s exhausting to try to narrow down something to write about, especially when your professor gives you a lot of creative freedom to choose your own topic.
Instead of staring at your course syllabus hoping an idea will jump out at you, let us help you make a decision that will save you a lot of time and effort. Keep reading to take a look at our master list of 250 research topics for college students to get some serious inspiration, no matter what subject or field you’re studying. Whether you need to write a research paper , put together a speech, create a presentation, write an essay, or develop a report, we have topics here that can help you narrow down a good opinion, idea, or argument.
Research is Always Important
Knowing how to do proper research is an important skill to have in both your academic and professional careers. No matter what you do, at some point in your life you’ll need to be able to take a topic, analyze the information, and put together a conclusion about it.
During your academic career in college or university, you will need to be able to do research whenever you need to do any written assignments. Quality research and credible references are always the backbone of any academic writing project.
Once you graduate, the work won’t always be over. There are many different reasons you may need to do some research in your professional career. If you’re going to start a business, you’re going to need to know how to do research and analysis . Likewise, if you want to work in marketing and advertising, digital media, journalism, the sciences, health care, or another professional industry like the legal field or social work, you’re going to be doing a lot of research in the future. In fact, there aren’t many job industries that won’t require some type of research at some point in time.
The bottom line is that research is always going to be important, and knowing how to find good research material, narrow down a good research topic, and analyze the data are always going to be important skills you need to have.
Choosing the Right Subject For Your Assignment
Finding good research topics for college students comes down to a few different factors. You want to make sure that the subject you choose checks off the right boxes. Otherwise, you’ll be stuck doing a lot more work than you planned, and no one wants to be doing that.
● Interest level: First and foremost, your topic should be something you are actually interested in. It’s really hard to motivate yourself to research and write something if you don’t care about it in the first place. Additionally, how are you going to get your audience interested in something if you don’t care about it?
● Background knowledge: What do you already know about your topic? Even if you just have a small idea or opinion about something, that little bit of background information will help you as a foundation for the research process.
● Audience: You have to keep in mind the audience you’re going to be writing or speaking to. Is this something that’s going to be interesting to them? When you’re doing research for a specific class, make sure that the topic is covered in that class. Otherwise, no one is going to care what you have to say.
● Available information: Make sure there’s enough research material out there for the subject or topic you choose. The last thing you want to do is spend hours sifting through sources just to find that you don’t have enough information to actually do your assignment.
250 Powerful Research Topics For College Students
Ready to figure out what research topics you’re going to try out? Check out our massive list below. Each of these research topics will be a great starting point for brainstorming, breaking down arguments, and making connections to other concepts.
For specific paper topics, check out our other master lists of 200 informative speech topics or 100 argumentative essay topics . Our team of experts has put together some amazing references for you so you can always find something that works for your assignment.
Once you’ve figured out which topic you’d like to use, keep reading to learn how to find good research and sources, start putting together an idea or opinion, and start working on your project.
Ancient History Topics (Pre-History to 476 A.D.)
1. Ancient Greek society 2. Mesopotamia and the origins of human civilization 3. Ancient Egyptian society 4. Cave drawings and the first methods of communication 5. Central Asian societies in the ancient world 6. Burial practices in ancient cultures 7. The Gupta Empire 8. The Maya civilization 9. Prehistoric North America (Native American and Indigenous peoples) 10. The Silk Road and the origins of trade 11. The Iron Age 12. The Bronze Age 13. The Out of Africa theory 14. Dinosaurs 15. Celtic history and origins of the celts 16. The Chinese Book of Han 17. Ancient Japanese cultures and societies 18. The ancient Persian Empire 19. The Trojan War 20. Ancient mythology
Post-Classical And Medieval History (477 to 1499)
21. The Aztec Empire 22. The fall of the Western Roman Empire 23. The Holy Roman Empire 24. Medieval castles and their monarchies 25. Technological advancements in the Middle Ages 26. Islamic rule in India and Africa 27. Timur’s invasion in India 28. The rise of the Ottoman Empire 29. The gold trade of Africa 30. The Byzantine Empire 31. The rise of the Catholic Church 32. Medieval leaders, knights, and warriors (William Wallace, William the Conqueror, Charlemagne, King Arthur, Joan of Arc, etc.) 33. The Black Death in Europe 34. The fall of Constantinople 35. Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire 36. The Crusades 37. Medieval writers, thinkers, and creators (Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Homer, Marie de France, Margery Kempe, Johann Gutenberg, etc.) 38. The Hundred Years’ War 39. Gothic architecture 40. Medieval medicine and healing practices
Early Modern and Modern History Topics (1500-Present)
41. Conquest of the Americas 42. Martin Luther and the 99 Theses 43. The Scientific Revolution 44. The Salem Witch Trials 45. The Age of Discovery 46. Early modern writers, thinkers, and inventors (Leonardo DaVinci, Michelangelo, Galileo Galilei, William Shakespeare, Isaac Newton, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Edison, etc.) 47. Renaissance art and discovery 48. The French Revolution 49. The British monarchy 50. The American Revolution 51. The Age of Enlightenment 52. The Irish War of Independence 53. The Victorian Era 54. The Atlantic Slave Trade 55. Military generals in the American Civil War 56. World War II 57. The Civil Rights Movement 58. The Vietnam War 59. Operation Desert Storm 60. 9/11 and global terrorism
English and Literature Research Topics For College Students
61. Symbolism in literature 62. Classic literary authors (Jane Austen, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Charles Dickens, Edgar Allan Poe, Victor Hugo, Jules Verne, H.G. Wells, etc.) 63. Mythology as/in literature 64. Romance and sexuality in literature 65. Dramatic irony in literature 66. Literature as propaganda 67. LGBTQ2+ Literature 68. The hero’s journey in fiction 69. Character archetypes 70. Old English language and literature 71. Genres of fiction (fantasy, horror, science fiction, historical fiction, romance, etc.) 72. Utopian and dystopian depictions in literature 73. Good vs. evil in literature 74. Native American literature and storytelling 75. Religious literature 76. Feminist and women’s literature 77. Children’s literature 78. Black literature and literary voices 79. Literary devices and analysis 80. Literary criticism
Music, Film, and Pop Culture Topics
81. Movie adaptations of books 82. Symbolism in film 83. Prolific directors and their work (Quentin Tarantino, Martin Scorsese, Christopher Nolan, Woody Allen, Steven Spielberg, Stanley Kubrick, Tim Burton, James Cameron, etc.) 84. Violence in film and television 85. Stereotypes in popular culture 86. Music genres and their associated sub-cultures 87. The role of music and song in activist movements 88. Jazz in New Orleans 89. Cinema scores and compositions 90. Classical Hollywood cinema 91. Soap opera dynasties 92. Spaghetti Western films 93. Streaming services and the music industry 94. Portrayals of superheroes in movies and television shows 95. “Fandom” culture 96. Gender equality in Hollywood 97. Legendary actors, bands, and musicians 98. Paparazzi and celebrity worship 99. Reality television shows 100. Satire in film and television
Current Affairs and Human Rights Topics
101. Immigration policies, practices, or laws 102. Women’s rights 103. Activist movements such as Black Lives Matter, Everytown For Gun Safety, Time’s Up, or the School Strike For Climate 104. Animal rights or animal cruelty 105. The United Nations 106. Gun safety and control policies 107. Climate change 108. Rural and urban poverty 109. Homelessness 110. Global or national terrorism 111. Modern warfare practices 112. Multiculturalism and nationalism 113. The crisis in Syria 114. Global peacekeeping 115. China’s One Belt One Road project 116. Urban slums in third world countries and developing nations 117. Capital punishment 118. Domestic violence 119. Disability and human rights 120. Internal displacement of Indigenous populations
Research Topics For College Students Studying The Sciences
121. Natural disasters 122. Climate change 123. Future predictions based on patterns and data 124. Animal populations 125. GMOs 126. Organic farming 127. Darwinism 128. Space exploration 129. Ecological conservation 130. Amino acids 131. Molecular biology 132. Genetic engineering 133. Cloning 134. Stem cell research 135. Dark matter 136. Hormone regulation 137. Plant life 138. Black holes in space 139. The Higgs boson 140. Cloud formation and weather patterns
Medicine, Nursing, and Health-Related Subjects
141. Vaccines 142. Homeopathic medicine and natural medicine 143. Health care reform 144. Diseases 145. Caring for the elderly 146. Failure-to-thrive infants 147. Cardiovascular care 148. Child care 149. Hormone replacement therapy 150. Neonatal nutrition and care 151. Sun safety and awareness 152. Women’s health care issues 153. Men’s health care issues 154. Transgender health care issues 155. Reconstructive surgery 156. Plastic surgery 157. Exercise and physical health 158. Nutrition and food 159. Catastrophic injuries 160. Acupuncture
Sociology and Psychology Research Topics
161. Cults 162. Class conflict and inequality 163. Phobias 164. Abnormal psychology 165. Autism and diagnosis 166. ADD and ADHD 167. Other mental illnesses (bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, psychosis, OCD, PTSD) 168. Cultural connections with food 169. Family relationships 170. Addiction and substance abuse 171. Divorce 172. The nuclear family 173. Gender roles and equality 174. Youth culture 175. Social media and modern networking 176. Freud’s theories 177. Fad dieting 178. Eating disorders 179. Nonverbal communication 180. Social cognition
Law and Politics Research Topics
181. Voting and election reform 182. Administrative law 183. Personal injury law 184. Business and Corporate law 185. Aboriginal self-governance 186. Law reform 187. Landlord and tenant issues 188. Self-representation in court 189. Youth justice 190. Legal aid 191. Refugees and asylum seekers 192. Landmark court decisions (Roe v. Wade, R v. Brown, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, etc.) 193. Censorship laws 194. Privacy laws 195. Discrimination and hate crimes 196. The Supreme Court 197. Family law 198. Criminal law 199. Citizenship and immigration 200. The United States electoral college
Education-Based Research Topics For College Students
201. Boarding schools 202. Sexual education 203. Education access 204. Digital literacy in the classroom 205. Standardized testing 206. STEM education 207. Plagiarism 208. College athletes 209. Free tuition 210. Home schooling 211. Religious-based education 212. Charter schools 213. Accessible education for disabilities 214. Sororities and fraternities in the United States 215. Teachers’ unions 216. The No Child Left Behind Act 217. Early childhood education 218. Native American education 219. International students and studying abroad 220. Student mental health
Technology, Media, and Computer-Related Topics
221. Bitcoin and online currency 222. Artificial intelligence 223. Technological developments 224. Social media 225. Smartphones 226. Cyberbullying 227. The Dark Web 228. Internet crimes 229. Self-driving cars 230. Internet privacy 231. Internet ownership 232. Technology and intimacy 233. Online scams 234. Ecommerce business 235. Website development 236. Graphic design 237. Drone technology 238. Information storage 239. Cloud-based computing 240. Servers and hosting networks
Marketing and Advertising Research Topics
241. Digital marketing 242. Behavioural targeting 243. Super Bowl commercials 244. Marketing and sales funnels 245. The buyer’s journey 246. Content marketing 247. Search engine optimization (SEO) 248. Gender stereotypes in advertising 249. Children’s advertising 250. Business fraud
How to Break Down Your Research Topic
Once you’ve chosen a broad topic from the list of research topics for college students, you still have a bit of work to do. Now, it’s time to form an argument and zero in on a specific subject or sub-topic you’d like to work with.
Examine the 5 Ws (who, what, where, when, and why):
● Who is/was involved? Background information will always give you some insights, such as the cause of an event or the purpose of a subject, and who it will primarily affect.
● What is the message? What happened? An overlying message, lesson, or value is almost always present regardless of what subject you’re studying. For literature topics, this might mean the messages that are conveyed within the text, or the overlying theme you’d like to explore. With history topics, this can refer to the events that took place, and what happened during this time.
● Where did this story, event, or topic take place, or where does it have an impact? For example, when using science-related topics such as natural disasters, this could mean the geographical areas where the disasters occur. If you’re talking about politics, you would want to focus on the areas where certain laws or policies have an impact.
● When did, does, or will this event take place? History topics will usually be about when an event took place, but if you’re working on a topic about literature, for example, you could talk about when the text was created. Background and context is always important for most subjects, and usually provides insight into the deeper meaning or significance of something.
● Why is this significant? In other words, why are we still talking about this particular topic? Is there something we should know about for the future? For example, if you’re focusing on climate change, your audience would need to know why this is significant so they can help to take action for the future.
Think about the broader connections of a subject and how it relates to the world. Are there lessons we can learn from these topics? What do they mean for society? What specifically interests you about these topics that you can break down into more specific subject areas?
How to Find Quality Research Material
When it comes to utilizing good research topics for college students, university students, or even working professionals, everything is going to come down to being able to source good research material. With research, everything is about quality.
Here are some places you can look to find credible, reliable, and peer-reviewed sources:
● Your school library or its website
● Free databases such as PubMed , EBSCO , and Academia
● The source and citation list at the bottom of Wikipedia entries (NOT the Wikipedia article itself)
● Case studies in the industry
● Google Books
● Google Scholar
● Government archives for primary sources in a specific country
● Citations in academic articles
Stick to the type of sources listed above to make sure that you are always providing quality evidence, information, and data. Be sure to avoid this list of unacceptable references, sources, or research materials:
● Other online encyclopedias
● User generated content on platforms such as YouTube, Facebook, Reddit, etc.
● Blogs or opinion articles
● Consultant websites
● Organization or corporate websites (heavy use of bias)
● Question and answer websites or chat forums
● Personal web pages
● Self-published books
The Importance of Referencing Your Work
Any time you’re going to use any material or information from your sources, make sure you provide proper references. List out your references whenever you find an idea, even if you’re not sure if you’re going to use it yet. This will help you when it comes time to start writing.
It’s always better to be safe than sorry when it comes to plagiarism. Add a citation for every idea or piece of information you use if you don’t consider it to be common knowledge. Be very careful with what you determine to be common knowledge, and always make sure you cite direct quotations at all times.
As a general guideline, the OWL At Purdue states that anything you see written in a credible source at least five times or more is usually safe to consider common knowledge. Again, be very careful with this. Just because you think something is common knowledge doesn’t mean that it actually is common knowledge to your specific audience – or more importantly, to your professor. For example, it’s common knowledge that there is a large population of homeless people in New York City, but it’s not common knowledge that, as of May 2020, there are approximately 59,308 homeless people in New York City. See the difference?
Learn more about referencing styles, avoiding plagiarism, and finding good sources in our free ebook, Making the Grade: A Guide to Essay Writing Like a Pro . This 150+ page book is packed with all the tips and advice you’ll ever need to write an amazing academic essay, regardless of what course you’re taking.
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The 50 Top Research Universities
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Updated October 12, 2022
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Students engage in research across america.
Some of the world’s most famous discoveries have been made through university research. From the invention of the telegraph, the discovery of AIDS, the origination of the internet, and current advances in stem cell research, our nation’s universities are the hub of knowledge and discovery, 56% of our nation’s basic research is being conducted at universities. Students are an integral part of university research; studies show that students who engage in research are twice as likely to graduate, five-times more likely to go on to graduate school, and have more successful careers after graduation. These students go on to become the next generation of scientists, engineers, teachers, and leaders in government and industry. Along with the progressive on-campus education offered by these research institutions, many of the universities listed below also offer top-notch distance learning programs. See Best College Reviews' 25 Best Online Colleges for more information.
The ranking for the top research univerities was determined based on the following criteria:
- The university has at least one research center or institute that functions under the jurisdiction of the university, but as a separate entity. (35%)
- There are opportunities for undergraduates to participate directly in research. (35%)
- The university receives federal research funds. (30%)
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1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Founded in 1861, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge Massachusetts. At its founding, MIT was a research university that adopted a European polytechnic university model that stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. During World War II and the Cold War, researchers at MIT were working on computers, radar, and inertial guidance. As of 2014, 81 Nobel laureates, 52 National Medal of Science recipients, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 38 MacArthur Fellows, and 2 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT. MIT is home to one of the most powerful university-based nuclear reactors in the United States. The Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) was founded in 1969; MIT students can join or initiate research projects for academic credit pay, or on a volunteer basis. A substantial majority of undergraduates participate and often become published, file patent applications, or launch start-up companies based on their experience in UROPs.
2. University of California at Los Angeles
Each year since the 2009-10 academic year, UCLA has averaged $1 billion in research funding. There are over 350 research labs, centers, and institutes, 290 of these are medical centers, and over 1,800 inventions have come from this research powerhouse. Within this enormous institution, there are plenty of opportunities available for undergraduates to conduct research. Whether it is presenting at a conference, working with faculty, or writing for the Undergraduate Science Journal, undergraduates are a key part of the outstanding research being conducted at UCLA. Research at UCLA has made some of the world’s greatest discoveries, from the invention of the internet, to reporting and classifying the first AIDS case in 1981.
3. Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University was founded in 1876 as the nation’s first research university. If you’re looking for scientific research in almost any field at any level this is a tremendous place to find it. The mission of JHU is “discovery—the creation of new knowledge through research and scholarship, and the education of our students, undergraduate and graduate alike.” Here are a just a few of the many research opportunities and centers at JHU: The Henry A. Rowland Center for Astronomy and Physics is unique in offering research in exciting fields such as Astrophysics, Condensed Matter Physics, Particle Physics, and Plasma Spectroscopy not only to graduates but also undergraduates, not to mention state of the art technology and instruments. The Silcio O. Conte Center, located at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center (MPRC), provides students opportunities to conduct neuroscience research in preclinical and clinical laboratories, participate in a didactic lecture series, ethics discussions with faculty, literature journal club, and career development seminars.
4. Texas A & M University
In 1887, the U.S. Congress passed the Hatch Act, paving the way for Texas lawmakers to establish the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, which is now Texas A&M AgriLife Research. It is the source for much needed research into the agricultural issues of the day. There are 13 research centers with over 1,700 employees, over 500 of which are doctoral-level scientists. These scientists are studying everything from plant diseases, animal parasites, grass and forage production, and the economical feeding of dairy and beef cattle. Researchers strive to maintain a traditional connection to farming and ranching, while developing crops with enhanced nutrition, discovering innovative renewable energy resources, and implementing new methods to improve air and water quality. This vast research organization serves all 254 counties in Texas and has 15 facilities around the state.
5. Princeton University
Research is integral at Princeton University, with over 1,100 participating faculty members in 34 academic departments, and 75 institutes and centers. Students at all levels are encouraged to participate in research with plenty of funding available. One opportunity available for undergraduate students is through PRISM (Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials) where undergraduates can earn a Certificate in Materials through taking a combination of core courses and participating in research with PRISM faculty. PRISM was founded to develop a deeper understanding of the world of materials and their applications while integrating science and engineering. Join Princeton in the attempt to advance the frontiers of human knowledge and society.
6. California Institute of Technology - Caltech
Edward Teller said, “The science of today is the technology of tomorrow.” At Cal-Tech research for undergraduates is diverse, flexible, competitive, and exciting. Opportunities abound starting with SURF (Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships). Beginning in 1979, SURFs have introduced students to academic research under the guidance of some of the world’s leading scientists and engineers; 85% of applicants have been awarded SURFs. If Caltech’s location doesn’t fit your needs there are other off-campus locations in Washington, Louisiana, and other college campuses. The LIGO Project is a NSF-supported endeavor through a summer program to design, build, and operate an astrophysical observatory for the direction and study of gravitational radiation. Caltech Undergraduate Research Journal, the WAVE program, Amgen Scholars, and NASA Programs are a few more opportunities at Caltech.
7. Yale University
It comes as no surprise that being an Ivy League university is one of the leading research universities in the nation. Yale University views research as an integral part of an undergraduate education. Students at Yale have access to over 800 faculty laboratories in 43 programs. First year students can participate in “Perspectives on Science and Engineering”, a year-long course and summer program providing students with an introduction to scientific research and research opportunities. Other programs include STARS (Science, Technology and Research Scholars), developmentally based research programs, and individual fellowship programs. Also to consider is the ability to conduct research on neuroscience, black holes, and climate change at Yale’s expansive research facilities.
8. Cornell University
Undergraduates at Cornell University are encouraged to participate in research to learn about their field of interest while gaining practical knowledge in that field. In 2011, 2,800 Cornell students earned credit for their research, and the typical senior science major spent 10-15 hours each week in the lab participating in faculty-led research. Cornell boasts two national research centers, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source and Cornell NanoScale Facility that serve broad national and international scientific communities. In addition to the numerous research centers and institutes, Cornell also has multiple laboratories, including a Duck Research Laboratory, New York Wine Analysis Laboratory, Equine Drug Testing Laboratory, and a Laboratory of Plasma Studies.
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9. georgia institute of technology.
Conducting first-rate research since 1934, Georgia Tech Research Institute is a leader of scientific research today. During the fiscal year 2014, Georgia Tech was awarded $363 million in government and industry sponsored research contracts, and they currently have 76 active US Letters Patents and 43 pending US Patent applications. There are nearly 1,600 highly-skilled people employed at GTRI. Undergraduates can apply for President’s Undergraduate Research Awards and receive a $1500 salary for conducting research with a faculty member. A student whose research has been accepted for presentation at a professional conference can apply for an additional $1000 in travel funds. Opportunities for student involvement flourish at this world-class institution.
10. Emory University
Almost half of undergraduates at Emory University have an opportunity to work with faculty on a research project; Emory received over $520 million in research funding awards, with over $300 million coming from the National Institutes of Health. The Scholarly Inquiry and Research at Emory program provides funding for undergraduates to pursue both domestic and international research. Emory has a vast amount of centers and institutes that conduct research. To name a few: Emory Global Health Institute, Emory Heart and Vascular Center, Emory Transplant Center, and Emory Vaccine Center. Emory is also home to the Woodruff Health Sciences Center, which has a $3.5 billion operating expenditure, over 23,000 employees, and 5,200 students and trainees.
11. Stanford University
Stanford University research has impressive statistics. Research faculty includes 2,118 members, 21 Nobel laureates, and 4 Pulitzer Prize winners. The university has a $1.33 billion budget, over 5,300 sponsored projects, and 5.4 million jobs have been created by Stanford entrepreneurs since the 1930’s. Stanford’s expansive list of research centers and institutions include the Center on Stress and Health, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Genome Technology Center, and the Pain Management Center. At the Stanford LPCH Vaccine Program, research is being conducted on using vaccines to prevent or treat cancer and allergic diseases, as well as to measure the benefit and cost of the vaccination in different populations.
12. Northwestern University
One of the country’s leading private research universities, Northwestern University has an annual budget of $2 billion and sponsor research in excess of $500 million. There are over 17,000 students at Northwestern, 2,500 full-time faculty, and 90 school-based research centers. Northwestern’s vision is for research to be interdisciplinary with people from different disciplines working together, as opposed to being divided into different disciplines with scholars working in isolation. Undergraduates can apply for the exciting and singular Circumnavigators Travel Study Grant, where a student is selected to receive a $9,000 stipend to spend the summer traveling the world, researching a topic of their choice. There are numerous other opportunities for undergraduates to conduct research during the summer or academic year.
13. University of California – Berkeley
Receiving a total of $730.7 million in research funding and boasting an accomplished faculty, the University of California Berkeley is a top research university. Amongst the faculty, there are 8 Nobel laureates, 141 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 94 members of the National Academy of Engineering, and 10 recipients of the National Medal of Science. There are over 100 research centers at UC Berkeley. The Berkeley Energy and Climate Institute is the coordinating hub for all of Berkeley’s energy and climate efforts to ensure the integration of science, engineering, social science, and market and policy research. Through this center, projects are being conducted on present day energy challenges, such as biofuel research, climate change, and energy demand.
14. Columbia University
The oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York, and one of the country’s nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution, Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university. It was founded in 1754 as King’s College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain, and renamed Columbia College in 1784. Columbia operates over 200 research institutes and centers including the Center for Archaeology, Institute for Cancer Genetics, Center for Schizophrenia Research, Columbia Neuroscience, the Earth Institute, the Center for Family Medicine, and Huntington’s Disease Center. Columbia University annually administers the Pulitzer Prize and lastly, 101 Nobel Prize laureates have been affiliated with the university, the second most of any institution in the world.
15. Michigan State University
During the 2013-14 academic year, Michigan State University received $528 million in research funding, with 64% coming from the federal government, and 19% from private donors. Historic discoveries at Michigan State University include the research that led to the development of hybrid corn and the process still used for the homogenization of milk. MSU scientists are at the forefront of water research, working collaboratively across campus and around the world to find the best solutions to present day water challenges. They are studying a diverse range of disciplines including engineering, chemistry, microbiology, fisheries, crop and soil sciences, molecular genetics, geology, medicine, zoology, and sociology. Undergraduates at MSU are encouraged to participate in research at the university; one opportunity available is through the Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities program, which enables students to participate in the original investigation, experimentation, creative activity, and presentation of a research project.
16. University of California – Davis
The University of California Davis’ California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) was established in 1962 as a breeding colony of healthy animals for research. CNPRC addressed conditions for housing and associating husbandry to ensure the healthiest of environments for the animals. Early on, CNPRC significantly advanced the quality of primate research and care. Ten years later, the center increased its collaboration with the Schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine and other UC Davis schools and colleges. Today, CNPRC is dedicated to improving human and animal health. Research performed at the center provides necessary information before proceeding to clinical trials in humans leading to new drugs, therapies and surgical procedures that benefit human health and quality of life. Along with this fascinating research center, UC Davis is a hub of research on the west coast. They have an impressive faculty with 23 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 25 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 14 members of the Institute of Medicine, and 14 members of the National Academy of Engineering.
17. Oregon Health & Science University
Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) serves as Oregon's only public academic health center, and has pursued excellence in research for more than a century. OHSU hosts several research centers and initiatives, including Doernbecher Children's Hospital and the Advanced Imaging Research Center.
OHSU's research work has made great strides regarding cancer and other genetic conditions. Its Knight Cancer Institute was a pioneer in molecular targeting of chemotherapy for cancer treatment. It has also recently found a method to edit the gene that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using genetic modification tool CRISPR, and co-leads a database for pediatric cancer research.
18. University of Washington
The University of Washington was founded in 1861, and is one of the oldest universities on the west coast and is home to one of the most highly regarded medical schools in the world. Undergraduates at the University of Washington have the opportunity to participate in the Undergraduate Research Program (URP) which works to ensure that all students who desire to participate in research will have the opportunity. Faculty at URP are dedicated to working students to incorporate research into their academic program, work with faculty to develop and publicize new research opportunities, assists students in accessing research opportunities, providing instruction on research methodologies, etiquette, and ethics, and creating opportunities to make student research public.
19. Brown University
Undergraduates at Brown University can apply for Karen T. Romer Undergraduate Teaching and Research Awards, which support Brown students who are collaborating with faculty on research and teaching projects. Named for the dean who launched the program in the 1980’s, UTRA’s provide students with valuable academic research experience. Not only does Brown University provide excellent research opportunities for undergraduates, an impressive list of research centers and institutions are affiliated with Brown. These include the Center for Biomedical Engineering, the Center for Computational Molecular Biology, the Center for Computation and Visualization, the Center for Environmental Health and Technology, the Center for Environmental Studies, The Center for Genomics and Proteomics, the Institute for Brain Science, and the International Health Institute.
20. University of Virginia
Founded in 2001 to foster an undergraduate research community, the Undergraduate Research Network has been an integral part of continuing research at the University of Virginia. The goal of URN is to provide students with learning experiences outside of the classroom; most departments at University of Virginia have active undergraduate research programs and are designed to be flexible for both students and faculty members. Opportunities include working as a paid lab technician or research assistant. Prepare for the following impressive statistics: The University of Virginia received $26 million in corporate partners research awards, $275 million sponsored research awards, has a $5.5 billion endowment, 1.5 million square feet of research, laboratory, and studio space, 4 research parks, and 1 national laboratory headquarters.
21. University of Michigan
Research is central to the University of Michigan’s mission; research expenditures totaled $1.27 billion for academic year 2011-12, with $795 million coming from the federal government. Known for its interdisciplinary research initiatives, such as nanoscience and technology, energy, and life sciences involve faculty from many units on campus including the Medical School, College of Engineering, and the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. The University of Michigan boasts the sixth largest academic library in the country, with more than 7 million holdings. Through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP), undergraduates have the opportunity to create partnerships with University of Michigan researchers. All university schools and colleges participate in UROP, which broadens the opportunity to all students. There are more than 1300 students and 800 faculty members participating in UROP.
22. Purdue University
Purdue University is home to Discovery Park, a place dedicated to learning, discovery, collaboration, and connection. Faculty, staff, and students from disciplines across the university and institutions around the world work together to conduct research at this state of the art facility. The Bindley Bioscience Center, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Cyber Center, and Oncological Sciences Center and many other research centers are located at Discovery Park. In addition to this amazing facility, undergraduates may publish their research in the Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research, a journal run by students through a partnership between Purdue University Press and other departments of Purdue. With these exceptional opportunities available, it is not surprising that over 30 percent of Purdue undergraduates have at least one research experience while attending.
23. University of Wisconsin – Madison
The University of Wisconsin - Madison is known as one of the most prolific research universities in the world; undergraduate students have the opportunity to work with some of the world’s leading researchers to assist with ongoing research, or to propose, design, and direct their own projects. There are numerous grants, scholarships, and fellowships available for students at all levels. The University’s Asthma, Allergy, and Pulmonary Research team is nationally known. They have been studying asthma for over 30 years and conducted over 400 studies with both children and adults. They developed new asthma medications as well as established guidelines for treating asthma. Whether it is asthma, weather stations on Antarctica, molecular biology, or stem-cell research, the opportunities are endless!
24. University of Colorado – Boulder
The University of Colorado Boulder has 11 research institutes that account for more than half of all sponsored research dollars at the university. Over 900 researchers, students, and staff contribute the university’s research mission. The university’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics has been recognized for building an Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph used to explore and photograph the upper atmosphere of Mars. This instrument is onboard NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft and successfully completed an orbit around Mars, sending valuable pictures back to earth. Research at CU-Boulder fulfills its mission to “encompass thousands of scholarly, scientific and creative endeavors at any given time, resulting in new knowledge, technologies and creative work that advance the economy, culture and health of Colorado, the nation and the world.”
25. University of Miami
The University of Miami is a national research university with approximately $350 million in annual research and sponsored expenditures. The university is comprised of five campuses that house 11 schools and colleges. Researchers are actively engaged in scholarships that span the biomedical and clinical sciences, engineering, psychology, marine and atmospheric sciences, and the humanities. Home to Florida’s first medical school, the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center, active medical research is being piloted on this 152-acre complex. In 2004, the school received a $100 million gift from the Leonard Miller family, formally designating it as the Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine; it is known for being a top medical school for Hispanic medical students.
26. University of Minnesota – Duluth
The University of Minnesota - Duluth has operated its Natural Resources Research Institute (NRRI) since 1985. From its origins as a small research center in an abandoned Air Force building, it has grown to become a state of the art facility which looks into all sustainability and economic issues in Minnesota.
The NRRI's research covers six key areas: water, wood, energy, forests and land, minerals and mining, and business support. In 2018, it worked with more than 80 clients and stakeholders, including private and public organizations. It currently employs more than 140 professionals in several research fields, including science and engineering.
27. Duke University
Undergraduate research at Duke University is organized by the Undergraduate Research Support Office, which provides grants and scholarships for research projects, travel, and multiple research opportunities. There are more than 30 research facilities that are conducting ongoing research, including the Duke Cancer Institute, the Duke Center for Human Genetics, the Duke Translational Medicine Institute, the Duke Center for AIDS Research, and the Duke Human Vaccine Institute. There is also a student-run science journal that is published at Duke, which features articles from the undergraduate, graduate, and professional school communities. Duke Science Review published its first issue in Spring 2013.
28. Stony Brook University
Stony Brook University was one of the first research universities in the country to establish an office for the specific purpose of promoting undergraduate research. Undergraduate Research & Creative Activities (URECA) was established in 1987 for the purpose of integrating research and undergraduate education. It now encompasses many programs, including the Battelle Summer Research Program, the Beckman Scholars Program, Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site Programs, and the URECA Summer Research Program. Other research centers at Stony Brook include the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Facility, System Engineering and Integration Laboratory, the Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres and the Visualization Laboratory. It is clear from the diversity of programs and opportunities that Stony Brook is exceptionally dedicated to research.
29. Rutgers University
Rutgers University, the eighth –oldest college in the United States, and one of the nine “Colonial Colleges” founded before the American Revolution, spends nearly $744 million per year in research and development, placing it as the top spending college or university in the state of New Jersey. It was a private liberal arts college until it gained university status in 1924; research began taking place at Rutgers in 1864. It is one of only two colonial colleges that later became a public university. Research at Rutgers is vast and many of the university’s research is world-renowned. Rutgers University Cell and DNA Repository is the largest university based repository in the world and has received over $57.8 million from the National Institutes of Health.
30. University of California – Santa Cruz
Located on the edge of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, the nation’s largest marine sanctuary, the University of California, Santa Cruz is leading marine science research and education. Students and scientists are studying the ocean and its complexities. Another fascinating research project being conducted through UCSC is located in Antarctica. Researchers have become the first ever to reach and sample the “grounding zone” of an Antarctic ice sheet, where ice, land, and sea all converge. Using a specially designed hot-water drill to cleanly bore through a half mile of ice, a team is using this information to collect data and study the mechanics of ice sheets. Students of all levels have the opportunity to participate in exciting new research through UCSC.
31. Boston College
Established in 1997, the Undergraduate Research Fellows Program at Boston College was founded for the purpose of enhancing the academic experience of undergraduates by cultivating their research skills and fostering relationships between the students and faculty. Through this program, students will receive a grant to pay for their research. The student will serve as a research assistant to a faculty member, working up to 20 hours a week during the semester, or 40 hours a week during semester breaks and summer. Boston College is dedicated to “make significant contributions in scientific research, the explorations of the relationship between religion and society, and improved practice in education, philanthropy, and corporate conduct.”
32. Vanderbilt University
Founded in 1873 and named after shipping and rail tycoon Cornelius Vanderbilt, Vanderbilt University is one of the leading research universities in the United States. Located in the heart of Nashville Tennessee, Vanderbilt is a national arboretum and features over 300 different species of trees and shrubs. The university received over $600 million in 2013 in external research funding. There are several research centers and institutions affiliated with the university including the Dyer Observatory and Vanderbilt University Medical Center. During the past five years, researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center have made significant gains in the use of genomic information to individualize patient care, and developed “personalized medicine,” as well as brought on board new technology, like next-generation sequencing to help identify disease-relevant changes in the genome.
33. University of Florida
Researchers at the University of Florida are researching everything from aging to gene therapy, adult stem cells and cancer. Research awards have steadily increased over the last few years; last year the University received $619 million in research funding. More than $323 million of that total was for health-related research. McKnight Brain Institute, the UF Genetics Institute, and the Emerging Pathogens Institute are just a few of the centers that are a part of the University of Florida. Opportunities for undergraduates include the University Scholars Program, where students will work one-on-one with UF faculty on selected research projects. Aspiring scholars and science minded individuals may enter a competition each spring for an award of $1750 for their research.
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34. university of maryland.
The University of Maryland’s Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center is a joint center between the University of Maryland departments of Atmospheric & Oceanic Science, Geology, Geography and the Earth Sciences Directorate at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. This research center is dedicated to enhancing an understanding of how the atmosphere, ocean, land, and biosphere components of the Earth interact as a system. ESSIC is located at “M” Square, which is the University of Maryland’s Research Park. This park is only 8 miles from the National Capital. It is Maryland’s largest research park and serves the greater D.C. area.
35. University of Pennsylvania
Some of the most cutting edge investigations today are taking place at the University of Pennsylvania through integrated campus research facilities. The Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LRSM) was established in 1960 as the center for Materials Research. LRSM is responsible for facilitating collaborations between faculty from different departments and schools, and promoting links to partners in industry, government, academe, and society at large. The Penn Institute for Regenerative Medicine is home to researchers who are studying stem cell and regenerative biology as well as transitional therapies and clinical trials to enhance regeneration to treat serious disease. Undergraduates can be a part of this revolutionary science through scholarships, fellowships, grants, and many more exciting opportunities.
36. The Ohio State University
During the fiscal year 2013, Ohio State University received $481million federal research and development funds, and $111 million industry-sponsored funds. It is one of only a few universities in the United States that houses fourteen different colleges, including seven health colleges in a single location. Founded in 1870 as a land-grant university, this public research university has seen impressive growth in research expenditures, boosting Ohio State to one of the top research universities the nation. Researchers are making advances in many different areas including global climate change, materials research, electromagnetics, cancer, infectious diseases, agbioproducts and imaging.
37. Case Western Reserve University
As the largest biomedical research institution in the state of Ohio, Case Western Reserve University is a research powerhouse. The primary goal of the school is to conduct cutting-edge biomedical research that leads to improvement in clinical care and the development of new knowledge in the biomedical sciences. Boasting eight Nobel laureates amongst its faculty and alumni, Case Western Reserve has contributed several historical breakthroughs in the fields of medicine and health. Former professor John J. R. Macleod was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1923 for the discovery of insulin; other notable research accomplishments by school faculty include discoveries in magnetic resonance imaging, first surgical treatments of coronary artery disease, first simulated milk formula for infants, development of the first heart-lung machine for use in open heart surgeries, the first successful genetic alteration of human cells in a test tube, and creation of the first artificial human chromosome. With accolades like these, Case Western Reserve is a leader in university research today.
38. Rice University
Rice University seeks to become a leading research institution, and has put its resources behind that goal. It operates dozens of research centers and institutions and many non-center research groups and projects, covering almost every area of research endeavor.
Not all of Rice's research efforts come from graduate students and faculty members. Its Office of Fellowship and Undergraduate Research (OFUR) helps students at all levels find learning and research opportunities outside the classroom. Students can also use the OFUR to find chances to pursue their research interests outside of Rice University itself.
39. Iowa State University
In 1988, Iowa State University established the Electric Power Research Center (EPRC) to maintain a strong electric power and energy research program, and to educate students at all levels to prepare them for careers in electric utilities and supporting industries. Researchers at EPRC are currently conducting a wide variety of studies including the design of a meteorological model ensemble forecasting system, developing high conductivity, ultralight, hi-strength aluminum composite conductors, and measuring stress across an area of a power system with area angles. In addition to EPRC, Iowa State University is home to the world’s first electronic digital computer, the world’s largest tornado simulator for wind energy research, the world’s highest resolution virtual reality lab, and the Bioeconomy Institute, a leader in developing new sources of energy, fuels, and other products from renewable resources.
40. North Carolina State University
With over 34,000 students, North Carolina State University is the largest university in the Carolinas. Offering 106 bachelor’s degrees, 104 master’s degrees, 61 doctoral degrees, and a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University provides ample opportunities. Undergraduates are eligible to participate in a wide variety of research projects including going on archeological digs, designing new ways to manage wildlife and plant populations, studying ancestral lineages using the tools of modern genetics, and finding ways to grow more food on less land. Working with a mentor, students participate in the undergraduate research program (UGR) to pursue academic questions and discovery at one of the nation’s leading research schools.
41. Oregon State University
Located on the Pacific Ocean in the charming coastal town of Newport Oregon, Oregon State University’s Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) is nearing its 50th year. Beginning in the early 1900’s as a small, one-building fisheries laboratory, it has become a 40-acre campus. This state of the art marine laboratory is home to collaborative research and education programs from OSU and six state and federal agencies. With a combined budget of over $45 million, HMSC is an important economic driver on the Oregon Coast; it is also key component of Oregon State University’s student research. Thriving summer internship programs and academic programs are offered year-round at HMSC for students to study the world-class seawater system, experimental wet labs, and OSU’s Guin Library.
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42. penn state university.
Penn State University spends nearly $1 billion on research each year. More than half of this funding comes from federal organizations, with the remainder coming from private grants, other groups, and the university itself. It considers research a major part of its mission as a land grant institution, and in 2018 invested nearly $200 million in research initiatives.
Penn State also has land grant, space grant, sea grant, and sun grant status, and is one of only two universities in the country to be accorded all of these distinctions. These designations enhance and extend its research.
43. University of Utah
The University of Utah supports over 80 centers and institutes serving academic, research, and community interests. One in particular is the School of Medicine, which operates a numbers of “Cores facilities” that offer both advanced technologies and equipment. The goal of the Cores is to make technology and expertise available to all faculty members and students. One of the Core facilities is dedicated to providing state-of-the-art systems for housing, breeding, and doing experiments with zebrafish. It is comprised of 5000 fish tanks and water systems. Another Core is the Machine Shop Core, which is equipped with lathes, drills, vertical mills, knee mills, welders, grinders, and other machinery capable of repairing existing medical machines and creating new ones. Regardless of ones interests, there are sure to be interesting prospects for research and invention at the University of Utah.
44. University of Pittsburgh
The University of Pittsburgh has 16 schools, thriving multidisciplinary centers, and close ties to the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, which allow research to play a major role at the university. Research is directed in collaboration with colleagues from over 80 other universities on aging, bioengineering, computer modeling, energy, global health, nanoscience, neuroscience, and translational medicine. As a public research university, all students have the opportunity to conduct research year-round. Students have access to the University’s medical school and complex, as well as opportunities to travel to different parts of the world to conduct faculty-mentored research. Each summer, the Conte Center for the Neuroscience of Mental Disorders sponsors a full-time, 10-week research experience, where students receive a $4000 stipend. This distinctive opportunity is available for freshman and sophomores who are interested in neuroscience research.
45. New York University
“The modern research university has a dual mission: to educate its students, and to discover new knowledge through scholarship.” With a vast array of institutes and centers at NYU, research is a key component of the academic setting and mission. NYU consists of more than 20 schools, colleges, and institutes located in six centers throughout Manhattan and Downtown Brooklyn, as well as more than a dozen other sites across the world. The word that comes to mind when looking at NYU is “historic”. Founded in the early 1800’s, NYU is the largest independent research university in the United States; Samuel Morse, inventor of the telegraph operated a laboratory from NYU, giving the university a long-standing tradition of research and invention. Well-funded, diverse, historic and dependable make NYU a premier choice for undergraduate research.
46. Indiana University
Indiana University is home to more than 110,000 students at two core campuses, seven smaller campuses, and two centers/extensions located throughout the state of Indiana. A hub of research, Indiana University operates many research centers and institutes, including the Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). It is a multi-disciplinary laboratory performing experimental and theoretical research and development in the areas of accelerator physics, nuclear physics and chemistry, and materials research. CEEM is known for using particle accelerators in many aspects of their research. Notably, opportunities are available for high school through post-doctoral students showing a true dedication and commitment to science and research.
47. Washington University in St. Louis
Washington University is a private research university in St. Louis and was founded in 1853. There are 22 Nobel laureates affiliated with Washington University, 9 having done a major part of the research at the university. The university has students and faculty from all 50 states, as well as from over 120 countries; it is made up of seven graduate and undergraduate schools. The Office of Undergraduate Research is available to help students in a variety of ways, including guidance for students in choosing an area of research and a mentor, finding current research opportunities, providing financial support for research either on campus or anywhere in the world in the form of Summer Undergraduate Research Awards, providing conference travel awards, and sponsoring the Undergraduate Research Symposium.
48. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is responsible for the Prairie Research Institute, an institute with a vision to develop ways to sustain the state’s natural resources. The Prairie Research Institute is just one of many research projects happening at the university. It is also home to the Research Park, a place on campus that is home to more than 90 companies, employing more than 1,400 people in high-technology careers. At any given time, more than 450 student interns are working in these companies gaining valuable work experience while making advances in research. The Research Park is also home to over 50 startup companies that are commercializing technology.
49. University of Notre Dame
The University of Notre Dame is a Catholic research university located near South Bend Indiana. Founded in 1842 by Father Edward Sorin as an all-male institution, the university still has many Holy Cross priests who continue to work for the university. The first women undergraduates were enrolled in 1972. Notre Dame is home to many research centers and institutions including the Eck Institute for Global Health. It is a university-wide enterprise that recognizes health as a fundamental human right and promotes research, training, and service to advance health standards for all people, especially those in low and middle-income countries who are impacted by preventable diseases.
50. Colorado School of Mines
Colorado School of Mines is a public research university devoted to engineering and applied science. It has the highest admission standards of any public university in Colorado. It is known for the development of a curriculum and research program geared towards responsible stewardship of the earth and its resources. Mines is a unique university as one of the only institutions in the world to do resource exploration, extraction, production, and utilization. The Renewable Energy Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (REMRSEC), one of the multiple research programs at Mines, is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and focused on renewable energy technologies. With a university that is completely devoted to research, there are definitely ample opportunities for undergraduate participation in quality and cutting edge research.
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- 10 Research Question Examples to Guide Your Research Project
10 Research Question Examples to Guide your Research Project
Published on October 30, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on October 19, 2023.
The research question is one of the most important parts of your research paper , thesis or dissertation . It’s important to spend some time assessing and refining your question before you get started.
The exact form of your question will depend on a few things, such as the length of your project, the type of research you’re conducting, the topic , and the research problem . However, all research questions should be focused, specific, and relevant to a timely social or scholarly issue.
Once you’ve read our guide on how to write a research question , you can use these examples to craft your own.
Note that the design of your research question can depend on what method you are pursuing. Here are a few options for qualitative, quantitative, and statistical research questions.
Other interesting articles
If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.
- Sampling methods
- Simple random sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Cluster sampling
- Likert scales
- Null hypothesis
- Statistical power
- Probability distribution
- Effect size
- Poisson distribution
- Optimism bias
- Cognitive bias
- Implicit bias
- Hawthorne effect
- Anchoring bias
- Explicit bias
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50 Best Research Universities Ranked for Undergrads in 2024
Interested in attending a STEM school? Our ranking of top research universities for bachelor’s degrees displays schools that will best prepare you for STEM careers.
10 Best Research Universities for Undergrads
Harvard university, university of california, berkeley, columbia university, university of chicago, stanford university, yale university, princeton university, massachusetts institute of technology, university of michigan, university of pennsylvania.
- The Catholic University of America 86%
- University of Pittsburgh 67%
- The New School 66%
- Illinois Institute of Technology 66%
- American University 64%
- City College of New York 64%
- Yeshiva University 63%
- University of Washington 53%
- George Washington University 50%
- Clark University 48%
- University of Washington 20 to 1
- University of California, Berkeley 19 to 1
- University of California, Los Angeles 18 to 1
- University of Virginia 15 to 1
- City College of New York 15 to 1
- Boston College 14 to 1
- University of Pittsburgh 14 to 1
- George Washington University 13 to 1
- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 13 to 1
- Howard University 12 to 1
- Columbia University $63,530
- Tufts University $63,000
- Brown University $62,304
- University of Chicago $62,241
- University of Pennsylvania $61,710
- Boston College $61,706
- University of Southern California $61,503
- Cornell University $61,015
- Dartmouth College $60,870
- Tulane University $60,814
- University of Chicago $62,640
- Brown University $60,944
- University of Southern California $60,446
- Tulane University $59,000
- Dartmouth College $58,953
- Johns Hopkins University $58,720
- Boston University $58,560
- University of Notre Dame $58,190
- Duke University $57,900
- Washington University in St. Louis $57,750
California Institute of Integral Studies
Cuny graduate center, the catholic university of america, illinois institute of technology, yeshiva university, clark university, american university, boston college, tulane university, rice university.
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology 4%
- Stanford University 4%
- Harvard University 4%
- Columbia University 4%
- California Institute of Technology 4%
- Princeton University 4%
- Yale University 5%
- University of Pennsylvania 6%
- Dartmouth College 6%
- University of Chicago 6%
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology 3 to 1
- California Institute of Technology 3 to 1
- Stanford University 4 to 1
- Yale University 4 to 1
- Princeton University 4 to 1
- Harvard University 5 to 1
- Carnegie Mellon University 5 to 1
- University of Chicago 5 to 1
- Columbia University 6 to 1
- Duke University 6 to 1
- CUNY Graduate Center $6,930
- City College of New York $6,930
- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill $7,019
- University of Washington $10,927
- University of California, Los Angeles $11,442
- University of California, Berkeley $11,442
- University of Virginia $16,547
- University of Michigan $16,865
- University of Pittsburgh $19,092
- California Institute of Integral Studies $20,500
- CUNY Graduate Center $9,930
- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill $10,552
- City College of New York $11,090
- University of Washington $16,605
- University of Virginia $17,674
- California Institute of Integral Studies $21,708
- University of Pittsburgh $24,118
- University of Michigan $24,902
- A great research university will expand your academic networking opportunities with some of the most influential professors in the world.
- Because of the huge research budgets at large research universities, students will be on the cutting edge of the latest technology and discoveries.
- A research university is the perfect choice for those students interested in pursuing a STEM degree.
A research university is a great option for students interested in obtaining STEM degrees . Such students benefit from engaging in experimental inquiry, exploring cutting-edge technologies, and pursuing innovation in a rich and dynamic campus atmosphere. The top research universities give students a chance to work closely with influential professors and choose from a wide range of well-funded degree programs and research opportunities.
What is a research university.
A research university is any university that invests heavily in research, and which consequently provides meaningful and extensive opportunities for its students and faculty to participate in research. The best research universities are classified into different tiers based on their quantifiable commitment to research activities. This tiered ranking is called the Carnegie Classification . This is where terms like R1 university and tier one university come from.
Related: Differences between research universities and teaching colleges
If you would like to see this ranking without school size considered, visit our best universities in the US ranking.
The following list of research universities is composed of both private and public schools. We’ve identified 394 research universities in the US . Of those, there are 185 private research universities in the US. In order to be included in this list of best research universities, a school must be a fully accredited university, offer doctoral degrees across the range of STEM subjects (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math), and it must report high levels of research activity based upon the number of research and/or practice doctorates awarded each year.
The Best Research Universities for Undergrads in the US
California institute of technology.
- #15 Best Universities in the US Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #19 50 Best Graduate Schools Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #23 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #25 Best Colleges and Universities by Academic Stewardship
- #1 Best Small Colleges in California 2024
- #3 Best Private Colleges in California 2024
- #4 The Most Influential Universities and Colleges Ranked by State 2024
- #5 Best Research Universities in California 2024
- #5 Best Colleges in California 2024
- #5 Best Grad Schools California 2024
- #5 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
Tuition + fees
California Institute of Technology’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Computer Science
- Earth Sciences
Most Influential Alumni
- Donald Knuth
- Linus Pauling
- John McCarthy
- William Shockley
- Benoit Mandelbrot
- Ivan Sutherland
- Vernon L. Smith
- L. Sprague de Camp
- Robert C. Merton
- #1 Online Colleges with the Most Generous Financial Aid in 2024
- #2 50 Best Private Colleges and Universities for Undergrads 2024
- #2 Top Schools that Offer Free Master's Degrees Online
- #2 50 Best Colleges and Universities Ranked for Undergrads in 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in Massachusetts 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools in Massachusetts 2024
- #1 Best Private Colleges in Massachusetts 2024
- #1 The Most Influential Universities and Colleges Ranked by State 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in Massachusetts 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #2 Guide to Free Online Courses for MBA Students in 2024
- #1 Best Schools in the World for Earning an MBA Degree Ranked for 2024
- #1 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #7 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
Harvard University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Political Science
- Jacques Derrida
- William James
- Noam Chomsky
- Charles Sanders Peirce
- Norbert Wiener
- Daniel Dennett
- Marvin Minsky
- T. S. Eliot
- Hilary Putnam
- Paul Samuelson
- #4 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #8 Best Universities in the US Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #2 Best Colleges in Massachusetts 2024
- #2 Best Grad Schools in Massachusetts 2024
- #2 Best Private Colleges in Massachusetts 2024
- #2 The Most Influential Universities and Colleges Ranked by State 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities in Massachusetts 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #3 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
- #6 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #8 Best Schools in the World for Earning an MBA Degree Ranked for 2024
- #11 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Richard Feynman
- Claude Shannon
- Paul Krugman
- Joseph Stiglitz
- Richard Stallman
- Ben Bernanke
- George Lakoff
- Vannevar Bush
- Murray Gell-Mann
- Lawrence Summers
- #4 50 Best Colleges and Universities Ranked for Undergrads in 2024
- #5 Best Universities in the US Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in California 2024
- #1 Best Private Colleges in California 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in California 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools California 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs in California 2024
- #2 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #9 Best Schools in the World for Earning an MBA Degree Ranked for 2024
- #22 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
Stanford University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Allen Newell
- Douglas Hofstadter
- Hans Moravec
- Sandra Day O'Connor
- Rodney Brooks
- John Harsanyi
- Gérard Debreu
- Anthony Kennedy
- Garrett Hardin
- Stuart J. Russell
- #7 50 Best Graduate Schools Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #8 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #1 Best Private Colleges in New Jersey 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools in New Jersey 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in New Jersey 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in New Jersey 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #8 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
Princeton University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Religious Studies
- Alonzo Church
- Edward Witten
- Robert Mueller
- Robert Nozick
- John Bardeen
- Gary Becker
- Jerry Fodor
- #8 50 Best Graduate Schools Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #10 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in Illinois 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in Illinois 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools Illinois 2024
- #1 Best Private Colleges in Illinois 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #5 Best Schools in the World for Earning an MBA Degree Ranked for 2024
- #11 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #16 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
University of Chicago’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Criminal Justice
- Social Work
- Milton Friedman
- Herbert A. Simon
- Richard Rorty
- James Watson
- Martin Gardner
- Thomas Sowell
- John B. Watson
- James M. Buchanan
- #7 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #7 50 Best Colleges and Universities Ranked for Undergrads in 2024
- #1 Best Private Colleges in Connecticut 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in Connecticut 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in Connecticut 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools in Connecticut 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #2 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
- #7 Best Schools in the World for Earning an MBA Degree Ranked for 2024
- #12 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
Yale University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Judith Butler
- Harold Bloom
- Josiah Willard Gibbs
- Alvin Plantinga
- Thorstein Veblen
- Fredric Jameson
- Alan Dershowitz
- Lawrence Lessig
- Grace Hopper
- #6 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #8 50 Best Private Colleges and Universities for Undergrads 2024
- #8 50 Best Colleges and Universities Ranked for Undergrads in 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in New York 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in New York 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools in New York 2024
- #1 Best Private Colleges in New York 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #1 11 Fastest Accelerated Online Master’s of Computer Science
- #1 Fastest Accelerated Online Computer Science Doctorates (PhDs)
- #1 Most Affordable Online Computer Science PhDs (Doctorates) 2024
- #5 Guide to Free Online Courses for MBA Students in 2024
- #9 Top 10 Most Affordable English PhD Programs (Doctorates) 2024
- #1 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
- #4 Best Schools in the World for Earning an MBA Degree Ranked for 2024
- #4 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #13 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
Columbia University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Murray Rothbard
- Herbert Marcuse
- Stephen Jay Gould
- Kenneth Arrow
- Carl Rogers
- B. R. Ambedkar
- Isaac Asimov
- Margaret Mead
Carnegie Mellon University
- #23 Best Universities in the US Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #25 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #2 Best Grad Schools in Pennsylvania 2024
- #2 Best Colleges in Pennsylvania 2024
- #2 Best Private Colleges in Pennsylvania 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities in Pennsylvania 2024
- #5 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #20 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
Carnegie Mellon University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- James Gosling
- Oliver E. Williamson
- Henry Giroux
- Edward Feigenbaum
- Edward C. Prescott
- John Forbes Nash Jr.
- Shafi Goldwasser
- Kurt Vonnegut
- Robert H. Dennard
Johns Hopkins University
- #17 50 Best Private Grad Schools 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in Maryland 2024
- #1 Best Private Colleges in Maryland 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools in Maryland 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in Maryland 2024
- #3 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs in Maryland 2024
- #1 Best Online Master’s in Health Informatics
- #1 Best Online Master’s in Sustainability and Green Technologies
- #1 Top 10 Best Online MBA in Economics Degree Programs Ranked in 2024
- #1 Best Online Master's in Organizational Leadership
- #1 Best Online MBA Programs in Maryland
- #1 Top 8 Best Online Public Health PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #1 Best Online Master's in Economics
- #2 Top 50 Best No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #2 Best Data Science Online Master’s Programs
- #2 The Best Online MBA Degree Programs in 2024 Ranked for Students
- #2 Top 5 Best Online Sociology PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates) 2024
- #2 Fastest Online Master's Degrees Ranked for Students in 2024
- #3 Best Online Master’s in Finance
- #4 Fastest Accelerated Online Computer Science Doctorates (PhDs)
- #6 Best Online Master's Programs 2024
- #8 Best Online Master's in Management
- #18 Fastest Accelerated Online Public Health Doctorates (PhDs)
- #22 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
Johns Hopkins University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- G. Stanley Hall
- John Archibald Wheeler
- John Mauchly
- Thomas Hunt Morgan
- Rachel Carson
- Joseph Jastrow
- Robert Fogel
- Gertrude Stein
- Richard E. Bellman
- John R. Commons
- #1 Best Research Universities in DC 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools in DC 2024
- #1 Best Private Colleges in DC 2024
- #1 Best Christian Colleges in DC 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in DC 2024
- #7 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs in DC 2024
- #1 Top 20 Most Affordable Online Master's of Nursing Programs
- #13 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
- #13 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #23 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
Georgetown University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- J. Edgar Hoover
- Antonin Scalia
- Paul Manafort
- George Tenet
- Abdullah II of Jordan
- Steven Novella
- Susan Hockfield
- Solomon H. Snyder
- Jerome Powell
- #13 50 Best Private Colleges and Universities for Undergrads 2024
- #13 50 Best Colleges and Universities Ranked for Undergrads in 2024
- #14 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools in Pennsylvania 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in Pennsylvania 2024
- #1 Best Private Colleges in Pennsylvania 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in Pennsylvania 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities for Social Work Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #1 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #2 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #1 Top 50 Best No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #1 Most Affordable Online Criminology Doctorate Programs (PhDs)
- #3 Guide to Free Online Courses for MBA Students in 2024
- #3 Fastest Accelerated Online Computer Science Doctorates (PhDs)
- #3 Most Affordable Online Computer Science PhDs (Doctorates) 2024
- #7 Top 15 Most Affordable Online Social Work PhDs (Doctorates)
- #3 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #6 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
- #10 Best Schools in the World for Earning an MBA Degree Ranked for 2024
- #10 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
University of Pennsylvania’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Martin Seligman
- John Backus
- James McKeen Cattell
- Eric S. Raymond
- Paul R. Ehrlich
- J. Presper Eckert
- #14 50 Best Private Colleges and Universities for Undergrads 2024
- #14 50 Best Colleges and Universities Ranked for Undergrads in 2024
- #16 50 Best Graduate Schools Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #20 Best Universities in the US Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #24 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools in North Carolina 2024
- #1 Best Christian Colleges in North Carolina 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in North Carolina 2024
- #1 Best Private Colleges in North Carolina 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in North Carolina 2024
- #4 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs in North Carolina 2024
- #1 Guide to Free Online Courses for MBA Students in 2024
- #1 Best Online Christian Colleges and Universities for Master's Degrees
- #1 Best Online MBA Programs in North Carolina
- #1 Fastest Online Doctoral Degree Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #1 Best Online Master's in Nursing MSN
- #3 Best Online Master's Programs 2024
- #4 Top 50 Best No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #5 Best Online Master's in Management
- #6 Fastest Online Master's Degrees Ranked for Students in 2024
- #9 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
- #14 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
- #15 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
Duke University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Jerome Bruner
- Fred Brooks
- Charlie Rose
- John W. Campbell
- Paul Farmer
- David G. Bromley
- Russell Kirk
- Michael Tomasello
- Peter J. Denning
- Charles H. Townes
- #21 Best Universities in the US Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #2 Best Colleges in Illinois 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities in Illinois 2024
- #2 Best Grad Schools Illinois 2024
- #2 Best Private Colleges in Illinois 2024
- #4 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #1 Fastest Online Associate Degrees Ranked for 2024
- #1 Best Online Master's in Public Administration Degree Programs
- #2 Best Online Bachelor's in Strategic Communications Degree Programs
- #1 Best College Majors that Offer Accelerated Degree Programs
- #8 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #11 Best Schools in the World for Earning an MBA Degree Ranked for 2024
- #21 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
Northwestern University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Stephen Colbert
- George Stigler
- John Paul Stevens
- Saul Bellow
- Aaron Director
- Robert Hanssen
- J. Gordon Melton
- Charles W. Morris
- Alston Scott Householder
- Walter Dill Scott
- Rudolph Rummel
- Virginia Satir
- #16 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #17 50 Best Private Colleges and Universities for Undergrads 2024
- #17 50 Best Colleges and Universities Ranked for Undergrads in 2024
- #3 Best Colleges in New York 2024
- #3 Best Research Universities in New York 2024
- #3 Best Grad Schools in New York 2024
- #3 Best Private Colleges in New York 2024
- #5 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master’s in Engineering Management
- #1 Best Online Master’s in Engineering
- #2 Best Online Master's in Management
- #2 Best Online Master's Programs in New York 2024
- #4 Fastest Online Master's Degrees Ranked for Students in 2024
- #4 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
- #10 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #17 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
Cornell University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Abraham Maslow
- Thomas Nagel
- Thomas Pynchon
- Sheldon Glashow
- Francis Fukuyama
- Anthony Fauci
- Leonard Susskind
- Steven Weinberg
- Ruth Bader Ginsburg
- Frank Knight
- #2 Best Universities in the US Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #4 50 Best Graduate Schools Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #4 Top Schools that Offer Free Master's Degrees Online
- #5 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #18 50 Best Colleges and Universities Ranked for Undergrads in 2024
- #1 Best Public Colleges California 2024
- #1 Most Affordable Colleges in California 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities in California 2024
- #2 Best Colleges in California 2024
- #2 Best Grad Schools California 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities for Social Work Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #1 Top 3 Best Online Economics PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #1 Best Online History Doctorate Degree Programs (PhDs) 2024
- #1 Top 5 Best Online Sociology PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates) 2024
- #2 Fastest Accelerated Online Computer Science Doctorates (PhDs)
- #2 Most Affordable Online Computer Science PhDs (Doctorates) 2024
- #2 Top 8 Best Online Public Health PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #2 Top 5 Best Online English PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #3 Top 5 Best Online Social Work PhDs (DSW Programs) 2024
- #3 Top 6 Best Online Clinical Nutrition PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #4 Guide to Free Online Courses for MBA Students in 2024
- #6 Best Schools in the World for Earning an MBA Degree Ranked for 2024
- #9 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
University of California, Berkeley’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Daniel Kahneman
- John Kenneth Galbraith
- Timothy Leary
- Shing-Tung Yau
- Ken Thompson
- Niklaus Wirth
- Theodosius Dobzhansky
- Douglas Engelbart
- Betty Friedan
- George Dantzig
- Octavio Paz
- #24 50 Best Graduate Schools Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in Rhode Island 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in Rhode Island 2024
- #1 Best Private Colleges in Rhode Island 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools in Rhode Island 2024
- #6 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs in Rhode Island 2024
- #19 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
Brown University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Peter Norvig
- Janet Yellen
- Andy Hertzfeld
- Richard Holbrooke
- Jacob M. Appel
- S. T. Joshi
- Randy Pausch
- Lester Frank Ward
- Jeffrey Eugenides
- David Kelley
- #3 Best Grad Schools In Texas 2024
- #3 Best Research Universities in Texas 2024
- #3 Best Colleges in Texas 2024
- #15 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #3 Best Online Master's Programs in Texas 2024
- #3 Best Online Master's in Computer Science Degree Programs
- #3 Best Online MBA Programs in Texas
- #5 The Best Online MBA Degree Programs in 2024 Ranked for Students
- #24 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
Rice University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Herman Daly
- Robert Woodrow Wilson
- Joyce Carol Oates
- Dennis Sullivan
- Robert Curl
- George Mackey
- William Sims Bainbridge
- Matthew Sands
- Thomas W. Malone
- John Morgan
- David Eagleman
- Henry M. Morris
- #1 Best Private Colleges in New Hampshire 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in New Hampshire 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in New Hampshire 2024
- #19 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs in New Hampshire 2024
- #18 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
- #19 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
- #24 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
Dartmouth College’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Joseph Campbell
- Robert Frost
- Stuart Kauffman
- Daniel Webster
- Robert Reich
- C. Everett Koop
- Jaegwon Kim
- Vincent Canby
- Michael Gazzaniga
- Robert Christgau
- Edward Norton Lorenz
- #6 Best Private Colleges in New York 2024
- #8 Best Colleges in New York 2024
- #8 Best Research Universities in New York 2024
- #8 Best Grad Schools in New York 2024
- #2 Best Online Master's in Social Work MSW
- #5 Best Online Master's Programs in New York 2024
- #6 Best Online Master’s in Education
- #12 Best Online Master's in Marketing and Advertising
- #15 Best Data Science Online Master’s Programs
Yeshiva University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Hillel Furstenberg
- John Taylor Gatto
- Paul Gottfried
- Joseph Halpern
- Herman Wouk
- Saul Lieberman
- Henry Abramson
- Norman Lamm
- David Rosenhan
- Howard Dean
- Shlomo Riskin
- Samuel J. Danishefsky
- #5 Best Private Colleges in Massachusetts 2024
- #5 Best Research Universities in Massachusetts 2024
- #2 Best Online Master's Programs in Massachusetts 2024
- #3 Best Online Master's in Project Management
- #4 Best Online Master’s in Health Informatics
- #7 Best Online Master's in Marketing and Advertising
- #12 The Best Online MBA Degree Programs in 2024 Ranked for Students
- #12 Best Online Master's Programs 2024
- #16 Fastest Online Master's Degrees Ranked for Students in 2024
- #7 How to Earn Your Master's Degree Without Your Bachelor's Degree
Brandeis University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Angela Davis
- Leslie Lamport
- Michael Walzer
- Patricia Hill Collins
- Thomas Friedman
- Abbie Hoffman
- Michael Sandel
- Avital Ronell
- Elaine Showalter
- Roderick MacKinnon
- Christina Hoff Sommers
- #6 Top Schools that Offer Free Master's Degrees Online
- #9 Best Universities in the US Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #11 50 Best Graduate Schools Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #11 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in Michigan 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in Michigan 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools in Michigan 2024
- #1 Most Affordable Colleges in Michigan 2024
- #1 Best Public Colleges in Michigan 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #4 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #6 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs in Michigan 2024
- #1 Best Online Master’s in Health Science
- #1 Best Online MBA Degree Programs No GRE Required Ranked for 2024
- #1 Fastest Online Master's Degrees Ranked for Students in 2024
- #2 Top 10 Best Online Communications PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #2 Best Online Master's Programs 2024
- #2 Best Online History Doctorate Degree Programs (PhDs) 2024
- #3 Top 3 Best Online Economics PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #3 Top 5 Best Online English PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #4 Top 6 Best Online Clinical Nutrition PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #6 Guide to Free Online Courses for MBA Students in 2024
- #5 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
University of Michigan’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Arthur Miller
- Edgar F. Codd
- Hans-Hermann Hoppe
- Stephen Smale
- John Henry Holland
- Amos Tversky
- Urie Bronfenbrenner
- Marshall Sahlins
New York University
- #2 Best Colleges in New York 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities in New York 2024
- #2 Best Grad Schools in New York 2024
- #2 Best Private Colleges in New York 2024
- #3 The Most Influential Universities and Colleges Ranked by State 2024
- #3 Best Research Universities for Social Work Degrees
- #3 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #7 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #1 Top 5 Best Online Social Work PhDs (DSW Programs) 2024
- #1 Top 10 Best Online Communications PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #1 Best Online Master's in Management
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs 2024
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs in New York 2024
- #1 Top 5 Best Online English PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #2 Top 6 Best Online Clinical Nutrition PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #2 Top 3 Best Online Economics PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #3 Top 10 Best Online Counseling PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #3 Best Online History Doctorate Degree Programs (PhDs) 2024
- #3 Top 5 Best Online Sociology PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates) 2024
- #3 Fastest Online Master's Degrees Ranked for Students in 2024
- #5 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
- #7 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
New York University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Erich Fromm
- Martha Nussbaum
- Glenn Greenwald
- Howard Zinn
- Eric Kandel
- Louis Nirenberg
- Alvin Toffler
- #4 Best Research Universities in Massachusetts 2024
- #12 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #1 Top 6 Best Online Clinical Nutrition PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #4 Top 8 Best Online Public Health PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
Tufts University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Eugene Fama
- Jamie Dimon
- Gordon S. Wood
- Peter Navarro
- David Autor
- Richard N. Goodwin
- John Ciardi
University of Rochester
- #4 Best Grad Schools in New York 2024
- #4 Best Private Colleges in New York 2024
- #16 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #2 Best Online Colleges in New York 2024
- #2 Best RN to BSN Online
- #4 Fastest Online Bachelor's Degrees Ranked for 2024
University of Rochester’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Richard Thaler
- J. C. R. Licklider
- Janet Maslin
- Bruce Schneier
- Arthur Kornberg
- Masatoshi Koshiba
- John C. Slater
- David Sloan Wilson
- Donna Strickland
University of Rochester’s Online Degrees
- Required Credits : 128
- Completion Time : None Reported
- Format : Online
Washington University in St. Louis
- #1 Best Colleges in Missouri 2024
- #1 Best Private Colleges in Missouri 2024
- #13 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #1 Best Online Associate Degrees in Missouri 2024
- #1 Best Online Colleges in Missouri 2024
- #2 Fastest Online Associate Degrees Ranked for 2024
- #2 Fastest Online Bachelor's Degrees Ranked for 2024
- #3 Best Online Bachelor’s in Liberal Arts and Humanities Degree Programs for 2024
- #8 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
Washington University in St. Louis’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Tennessee Williams
- Phyllis Schlafly
- Daniel Nathans
- Charles Eames
- Marilyn vos Savant
- Edwin G. Krebs
- Michael Isikoff
- İhsan Doğramacı
- William E. Moerner
- Clyde Cowan
Washington University in St. Louis’s Online Degrees
- Social Science
- Required Credits : 120
- #1 Best Research Universities in Tennessee 2024
- #9 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs in Tennessee 2024
- #7 Best Online Master's in Computer Science Degree Programs
- #13 Best Online Master's in Management
- #18 Fastest Online Master's Degrees Ranked for Students in 2024
Vanderbilt University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- James Patterson
- Cleanth Brooks
- Robert Penn Warren
- John Crowe Ransom
- David Brinkley
- John Seigenthaler
- John Ridley Stroop
- Norman Shumway
- Steven E. Jones
- Michelle Alexander
Case Western Reserve University
- #2 Best Colleges in Ohio 2024
- #19 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #15 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
Case Western Reserve University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- David Gorski
- Donald A. Glaser
- Paul Lauterbur
- William Glasser
- Ferid Murad
- John D. Mayer
- Alistair Cockburn
- Terry Sejnowski
University of Notre Dame
- #1 Best Private Colleges in Indiana 2024
- #3 Best Colleges in Indiana 2024
- #3 Best Research Universities in Indiana 2024
- #3 Best Grad Schools in Indiana 2024
- #8 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #6 Top 20 Best Online MBA Programs that Can Be Completed in One Year 2024
- #9 The Fastest Traditional MBA Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
University of Notre Dame’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Jacques Maritain
- Orson Scott Card
- E. Jerome McCarthy
- Saskia Sassen
- Brian McHale
- Condoleezza Rice
- Jon Barwise
- Peter Suber
- Eric F. Wieschaus
- Joe Montana
- Matthew Fox
- Robert Seamans
University of Southern California
- #4 Best Research Universities in California 2024
- #4 Best Colleges in California 2024
- #4 Best Grad Schools California 2024
- #5 The Most Influential Universities and Colleges Ranked by State 2024
- #5 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master’s in Human Resources
- #1 Best Online Master's in Social Work MSW
- #1 Best Online Doctorate in Organizational Leadership Degree Programs
- #1 Best Research Universities with Online Doctorates (PhDs) 2024
- #1 Best Online Master’s in Communications
- #1 Best Online Master's in Computer Science Degree Programs
- #1 Top 20 Best Online Accredited Doctorate Degree Programs (PhDs) 2024
- #1 Best Data Science Online Master’s Programs
- #1 Best Online Master's in Project Management
- #1 Top 8 Best Online Applied Behavioral Analysis PhDs (Doctorates)
- #1 Best Online Master's in Cybersecurity
- #1 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
- #1 Best Online Master's in Hospitality and Tourism Degree Programs
- #1 Best Online Doctorate of Physical Therapy Programs (PhDs)
- #1 The Best Online MBA Degree Programs in 2024 Ranked for Students
- #1 Top 10 Best Online Master's of Public Relations Ranked 2024
- #1 Best Online Doctorate in Education Degree Programs Ranked for Students
- #1 Best Online Master’s in Finance
- #2 Best Online Master’s in Health Informatics
- #2 Best Online Master’s in Sustainability and Green Technologies
- #2 Best Online Master's Programs in California 2024
- #2 Top 5 Best Online Social Work PhDs (DSW Programs) 2024
- #2 Best Online Master's in Public Administration Degree Programs
- #2 Best Online MBA Programs in California
- #2 Best Online Master's in Criminal Justice
- #2 Fastest Online Doctoral Degree Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #2 Top 18 Most Affordable No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs
- #2 Best Online Master’s in Engineering Management
- #2 Best Online Master’s in Engineering
- #3 Best Online Master's in Management
- #3 Best Online Master's in Nursing MSN
- #4 Best Online Master's Programs 2024
- #5 Top 10 Best Online Communications PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #5 Fastest Accelerated Online Computer Science Doctorates (PhDs)
- #5 Top 15 Most Affordable Online Social Work PhDs (Doctorates)
- #5 Fastest Online Master's Degrees Ranked for Students in 2024
- #6 Top 50 Best No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #12 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
University of Southern California’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Frank Gehry
- Neil Armstrong
- Jack L. Warner
- John Mearsheimer
- Boris Podolsky
- Michael D. Griffin
- O. J. Simpson
- Richard Perle
- Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
- Christine Blasey Ford
CUNY Graduate Center’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Nancy Fraser
- Karl Widerquist
- Douglas Crimp
- Lisa Nakamura
- Paul Mariani
- Terrell Ward Bynum
- Holland Cotter
- Stephen K. White
- James Kugel
CUNY Graduate Center’s Online Degrees
- Accelerated Nursing Education
- Accelerated Nursing Informatics
- Accelerated Nursing Organizational Leadership
- AcceleratedNursing Informatics
- Required Credits : 150
- Queensborough Community College Fast Track
- Dual Program with Queensbourough College
- #5 Best Research Universities in Illinois 2024
- #5 Best Grad Schools Illinois 2024
Illinois Institute of Technology’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Munir Ahmad Khan
- Jack Dongarra
- Jack Steinberger
- Helmut Jahn
- Sidney Coleman
- Watts Humphrey
- Virgil Abloh
- Kevin Roche
- Dorothy Thompson
- Grote Reber
- Samuel Karlin
- Martin C. Jischke
University of California, Los Angeles
- #13 50 Best Graduate Schools Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #14 Best Universities in the US Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #17 Best Universities in the World 2024
- #2 Best Public Colleges California 2024
- #2 Most Affordable Colleges in California 2024
- #3 Best Research Universities in California 2024
- #3 Best Colleges in California 2024
- #3 Best Grad Schools California 2024
- #6 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #8 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #10 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #4 Top 5 Best Online Social Work PhDs (DSW Programs) 2024
- #4 Top 3 Best Online Economics PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #4 Best Online History Doctorate Degree Programs (PhDs) 2024
- #4 Top 5 Best Online English PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #4 Top 5 Best Online Sociology PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates) 2024
- #14 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
University of California, Los Angeles’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Elinor Ostrom
- Judea Pearl
- Glenn T. Seaborg
- Barry Boehm
- Stanley Cavell
- William F. Sharpe
- Edward O. Thorp
- John Ehrlichman
- Stephen Krashen
University of Virginia
- #10 50 Best Public Grad Schools 2024
- #25 Best Universities in the US Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in Virginia 2024
- #1 Best Public Colleges in Virginia 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools in Virginia 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in Virginia 2024
- #12 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs in Virginia 2024
- #1 Top 20 Most Affordable Online Doctorate of Education (PhDs)
- #1 Best Online Master's in Special Education
- #6 Best Online Bachelor's in Cybersecurity in Virginia
- #8 Fastest Online Master's Degrees Ranked for Students in 2024
- #10 Guide to Free Online Courses for MBA Students in 2024
- #12 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
University of Virginia’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Ronald Coase
- Edgar Allan Poe
- William Faulkner
- Georgia O'Keeffe
- Francis Collins
- Katie Couric
- Anselm Strauss
- #2 Best Grad Schools in Georgia 2024
- #2 Best Colleges in Georgia 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities in Georgia 2024
- #9 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #12 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
Emory University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Newt Gingrich
- C. Vann Woodward
- Jeffrey Burton Russell
- Carl Hiaasen
- Mikhail Epstein
- Walter Wink
- Timothy Tyson
- Ernie Harwell
- Tressie McMillan Cottom
- Dumas Malone
- #5 Best Research Universities in DC 2024
- #5 Best Grad Schools in DC 2024
- #5 Best Private Colleges in DC 2024
- #5 Best Colleges in DC 2024
- #23 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #1 Best Online Associate Degrees in DC 2024
- #5 Best Online Master's Programs in DC 2024
The Catholic University of America’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Maureen Dowd
- Brian Williams
- Thomas L. Saaty
- Raymond E. Brown
- Theodore Hesburgh
- Verlyn Flieger
- Raymond Leo Burke
- Thomas Berry
- Seán Patrick O'Malley
- Hugh Everett III
University of Washington
- #8 Top Schools that Offer Free Master's Degrees Online
- #16 Best Universities in the US Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #20 50 Best Graduate Schools Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
- #1 Best Public Colleges in Washington 2024
- #1 Best Grad Schools in Washington 2024
- #1 Best Colleges in Washington 2024
- #1 Most Affordable Colleges in Washington 2024
- #1 Best Research Universities in Washington 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities for Criminal Justice Degrees
- #5 Best Research Universities for Social Work Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #17 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs in Washington 2024
- #1 Best Online Colleges in Washington 2024
- #4 Best Online MBA Degree Programs No GRE Required Ranked for 2024
- #5 Best Online MBA Programs in Washington
- #5 Top 5 Best Online Social Work PhDs (DSW Programs) 2024
- #6 Most Affordable Online Applied Behavioral Analysis PhD Programs
- #8 Guide to Free Online Courses for MBA Students in 2024
- #10 Most Affordable Early Childhood Education Bachelor's (Online, On-Campus)
- #17 20 Fastest Accelerated Online English Doctorates (PhDs) 2024
- #10 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
- #17 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
University of Washington’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Frank Herbert
- Jerry Pournelle
- Robert Mundell
- Michael Hardt
- Harold Hotelling
- Dave Cutler
- Minoru Yamasaki
- Lyle Campbell
- Steven Holl
George Washington University
- #2 Best Colleges in DC 2024
- #6 Best Research Universities for Criminal Justice Degrees
- #9 Best Research Universities for Social Work Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #1 Best Online MBA Programs in DC
- #2 Best Online Master's Programs in DC 2024
- #3 Best Research Universities with Online Doctorates (PhDs) 2024
- #3 Top 10 Best Online Master's of Public Relations Ranked 2024
- #5 Top 18 Most Affordable No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs
- #6 Most Unusual Doctoral Degrees You Can Earn Online (PhDs)
- #6 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
- #9 Top 10 Fastest Accelerated Online Psychology Doctorates (PhDs)
- #10 Top 50 Best No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
George Washington University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- L. Ron Hubbard
- Bob Woodward
- George Armitage Miller
- Allen Dulles
- Juan Guaidó
- James E. Webb
- Roger Stone
- Julius Axelrod
Clark University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Edward B. Titchener
- Solomon Lefschetz
- Lewis Terman
- George Mandler
- Robert H. Goddard
- John H. Flavell
- Arnold Gesell
- Edwin Boring
- E. Franklin Frazier
- Henry H. Goddard
- P. C. Chang
- #3 Best Private Colleges in DC 2024
- #3 Best Colleges in DC 2024
- #9 Best Research Universities for Criminal Justice Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #3 Best Online Master's Programs in DC 2024
- #4 Best Online MBA Programs in DC
- #7 Top 15 Most Affordable Online Economics PhD Programs (Doctorates) 2024
- #12 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
- #13 Top 20 Best Online MBA Programs that Can Be Completed in One Year 2024
- #1 How to Earn Your Master's Degree Without Your Bachelor's Degree
American University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Oliver North
- Stephen A. Kent
- Queen Rania of Jordan
- Juan E. Méndez
- Corey Lewandowski
- Robert Kagan
- Kathy Reichs
- James Alan Fox
- Cornelius M. Kerwin
- Clark Howard
University of Pittsburgh
- #3 Best Grad Schools in Pennsylvania 2024
- #3 Best Colleges in Pennsylvania 2024
- #3 Best Research Universities in Pennsylvania 2024
- #17 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
University of Pittsburgh’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Stuart Hameroff
- Patricia Churchland
- Paul Churchland
- Richard Lazarus
- Ernest Sosa
- Bas van Fraassen
- Michael Chabon
- August Wilson
- Jaak Panksepp
- Noël Carroll
- #3 Best Private Colleges in Massachusetts 2024
- #3 Best Research Universities in Massachusetts 2024
- #3 Best Research Universities for Criminal Justice Degrees
- #13 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #15 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #24 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #1 Best Online Colleges in Massachusetts 2024
- #1 Best Online Master's in Marketing and Advertising
- #1 Best Online Master's Programs in Massachusetts 2024
- #1 Top 10 Best Online Counseling PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #1 Fastest Online Bachelor's Degrees Ranked for 2024
- #1 Best Online Master's in Art Education and Art Administration
- #1 10 Best Online Master's of Music Education Degree Programs
- #1 Best Online Degree Completion Programs for Returning Students
- #2 Best Online Master's in Project Management
- #2 Best Online MBA Degree Programs No GRE Required Ranked for 2024
- #2 Best Online Master’s in Finance
- #3 Best Online Master's in Social Work MSW
- #3 Best Online Master’s in Communications
- #3 Top 10 Best Online Communications PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #3 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
- #3 Fastest Online Doctoral Degree Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #4 Most Unusual Doctoral Degrees You Can Earn Online (PhDs)
- #4 Best Data Science Online Master’s Programs
- #6 Fastest Accelerated Online Computer Science Doctorates (PhDs)
- #7 Best Online Master's in Criminal Justice
- #7 Best Online Master's in Management
- #7 Best Online Master's Programs 2024
- #13 Fastest Online Master's Degrees Ranked for Students in 2024
- #2 How to Earn Your Master's Degree Without Your Bachelor's Degree
- #15 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
- #19 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
Boston University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Martin Luther King Jr.
- Neal Stephenson
- Norman Vincent Peale
- Tipper Gore
- David Ellerman
- Albert-László Barabási
- Steven M. Wise
- Daniel C. Tsui
- Kim Stanley Robinson
Boston University’s Online Degrees
- Required Credits : 64
University of Miami
- #2 Best Research Universities in Florida 2024
- #22 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #1 Best Online MBA Programs in Florida
- #1 Fastest Accelerated Online Doctorate of Nursing Programs (PhDs)
- #1 Best Online Master's in Sports Management
- #2 Best Online Master's Programs in Florida 2024
- #3 Best Online Master's Degrees in Accounting
- #3 10 Fastest Accelerated Online Master's of Accounting Programs
- #4 Best Online Master's in Public Administration Degree Programs
- #5 Best Online Master’s in Finance
- #6 The Best Online MBA Degree Programs in 2024 Ranked for Students
- #7 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
- #12 Best Online Master's in Management
- #13 Fastest Online Doctoral Degree Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #14 Best Online Master's Programs 2024
University of Miami’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Vincent Bugliosi
- G. William Domhoff
- Anthony Atala
- Martin H. Greenberg
- Algis Budrys
- Sylvester Stallone
- Mikheil Saakashvili
- Joe Barresi
- Jeff Garlin
- Mercedes Aráoz
- Eric J. Barron
- #4 Best Colleges in DC 2024
- #18 Best Research Universities for Criminal Justice Degrees
- #2 Best Online MBA Programs in DC
- #4 Best Online Master's Programs in DC 2024
- #19 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
Howard University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Toni Morrison
- Stokely Carmichael
- Amiri Baraka
- Lucretia Mott
- Zora Neale Hurston
- Ta-Nehisi Coates
- James Farmer
- Marjorie Lee Browne
- Sonia Sanchez
- Kamala Harris
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
- #17 Most Affordable Colleges and Universities in the U.S. 2024
- #1 Best Public Colleges in North Carolina 2024
- #1 Most Affordable Colleges in North Carolina 2024
- #2 Best Grad Schools in North Carolina 2024
- #2 Best Research Universities in North Carolina 2024
- #2 Best Colleges in North Carolina 2024
- #10 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #11 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #20 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
- #21 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
- #22 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
- #23 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
- #25 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
- #1 Best Online Master's in Healthcare Administration
- #1 Best Online Master's Degrees in Accounting
- #1 Fastest Accelerated Online Public Health Doctorates (PhDs)
- #1 Fastest Accelerated Online Healthcare Administration Masters
- #2 Best Online Master's Programs in North Carolina 2024
- #2 Best Online MBA Programs in North Carolina
- #2 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
- #2 Best Online Doctorate of Physical Therapy Programs (PhDs)
- #3 Best Online Master’s in Health Informatics
- #3 Best Online Master's in Public Administration Degree Programs
- #3 The Best Online MBA Degree Programs in 2024 Ranked for Students
- #4 Best Online Master’s in Communications
- #4 Fastest Online Doctoral Degree Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #5 Top 20 Best Online MBA Programs that Can Be Completed in One Year 2024
- #7 Guide to Free Online Courses for MBA Students in 2024
- #7 Top 8 Best Online Public Health PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
- #8 Best Online MBA Degree Programs No GRE Required Ranked for 2024
- #8 15 Most Affordable Online Public Health Doctorates (PhDs)
- #8 Best Online Master's Programs 2024
- #9 Best Online Master's in Management
- #10 Fastest Online Master's Degrees Ranked for Students in 2024
- #13 Most Affordable Master's in Counseling Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
- #14 Best Schools in the World for Earning an MBA Degree Ranked for 2024
- #20 Top 20 Best Business Schools for MBAs Ranked for Students
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Lawrence Ferlinghetti
- Howard T. Odum
- Jeffrey Beall
- Charles Tart
- Robert F. Furchgott
- Robert Cialdini
- James Rachels
- Allen Buchanan
- #7 Best Colleges in Massachusetts 2024
- #7 Best Grad Schools in Massachusetts 2024
- #7 Best Research Universities in Massachusetts 2024
- #5 Best Research Universities for Criminal Justice Degrees
- #14 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
- #16 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
- #18 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
- #19 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
- #2 Best Online Master’s in Education
- #3 Best Online Master's Programs in Massachusetts 2024
- #3 Top 8 Best Online Applied Behavioral Analysis PhDs (Doctorates)
- #5 Fastest Online Doctoral Degree Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
- #5 Best Online Doctorate in Education Degree Programs Ranked for Students
- #9 Best Online MBA Degree Programs No GRE Required Ranked for 2024
Boston College’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Robert Gallo
- Dennis Ross
- Ernest Moniz
- Mark Wrathall
- R. Nicholas Burns
- J. Arch Getty
- David H. Barlow
- Richard Cushing
- Richard Swedberg
- Julianne Malveaux
- John Courtney Murray
California Institute of Integral Studies’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Nancy C. Maryboy
California Institute of Integral Studies’s Online Degrees
- Required Credits : None Reported
- Format : None Reported
- #1 Best Private Colleges in Louisiana 2024
- #10 Best Online MBA Programs in Louisiana
- #10 Top 15 Most Affordable Online Social Work PhDs (Doctorates)
- #16 Fastest Accelerated Online Public Health Doctorates (PhDs)
Tulane University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Florian Cajori
- John Sallis
- Jim Garrison
- Henry Hobson Richardson
- Andrew Breitbart
- Maxwell Wintrobe
- Barbara Forrest
- Sander Gilman
The New School
The New School’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Peter L. Berger
- Franco Modigliani
- Marc Jacobs
- Ruth Benedict
- Lewis Mumford
- James Baldwin
- Heinrich Blücher
- Nader El-Bizri
- Shimon Peres
- Robert Heilbroner
The New School’s Online Degrees
City college of new york.
- #7 Best Research Universities in New York 2024
- #7 Best Grad Schools in New York 2024
- #5 Most Affordable Master's in Counseling Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
City College of New York’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:
- Julian Schwinger
- Leonard Kleinrock
- Robert Aumann
- Upton Sinclair
- Seymour Martin Lipset
- Daniel Bell
- Leon Festinger
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11 Good Study Habits to Develop
Good study habits include finding a quiet location to study, taking breaks, settings goals, and taking practice tests. Here's the full list, and the psychological reasons why they work.
Studying can be hard. The good news is that anybody can develop good study habits to make studying more effective, efficient, and enjoyable.
Want to develop good study habits? Start small—don’t expect to do everything in this list, at least not right away; pick one or two instead. It’s also important to set realistic and achievable goals for yourself.
Good study habits to develop
Here are 11 tips to improve your study habits:
Find a good place to study.
Space out your studying.
Set study goals for each session.
Study with a group.
Take practice tests.
Use your own words.
Ask for help.
Take care of yourself.
Let's take a closer look at how you can implement each of these habits.
1. Find a good place to study.
Finding a good location to study is one of the most important elements of studying well. Look for a quiet place with minimal distractions—someplace where you’ll be able to focus, and won’t be interrupted by loud sounds or people who constantly want your attention.
A school or public library, a coffee shop, or a quiet corner of your house can all be good places to start.
Should I stick to one place to study?
Not necessarily. Some studies show that occasionally changing where you study can help retain information. This is because studying the same material in different locations helps your brain create multiple associations with that material, making it easier for you to remember it [ 1 ]. It can be beneficial to find three or four places you like to study and switch locations when you’re feeling stuck or need a change of pace. That said, everybody is different. Find what works best for you.
2. Minimize distractions.
Picking a good location to study can be the first step in keeping yourself focused on your work. But there are many types of distractions that can reach you no matter where you choose to work. Here are some tips on minimizing these distractions:
Turn off your wifi: If you’re working on a computer and you don’t need your wifi, try turning it off. This can keep you from inadvertently wandering into the distracting parts of the internet.
Be mindful of your phone: It’s no secret that our smartphones can be hugely distracting. Turning off your notifications, keeping your phone out of sight in your bag, or giving it to a friend to keep you from checking it too often can help you stay focused. You might also try a focus app, like Forest or Focus To-Do , that can block distracting apps and set timers for study sessions.
Study with a friend: Sometimes studying with a friend or two, whether or not you’re working on the same material, can help keep you accountable and focused. Make sure you each are on the same page about studying and keeping one another distraction-free, at least until it’s time to take a break.
Should I listen to music while I study?
Listening to music while you study has some benefits; it can boost your mood and calm anxiety or stress. But studies show that reading comprehension tends to fall when the music is too loud, fast-paced, or contains lyrics [ 2 ]. Stick with calming, wordless songs while studying, and save the upbeat numbers for breaks.
3. Take breaks.
Taking intentional breaks has been linked to better retention, increased attention, and boosts in energy. Research shows that working for around 50 minutes, then giving yourself a 15- to 20-minute break, can lead to optimum productivity [ 3 ]. Here are a few ways you can give yourself a break:
Take a short walk
Listen to a mood-boosting song
Relax with a friend
Zone out and daydream
Have a snack
Take a shower
Clean your desk or room
Not all breaks are created equal. Checking your phone or social media as a study break has actually been linked to a decrease in performance [ 4 ].
4. Space out your studying.
Cramming can still help you get a good grade on a test, but studies show that you’re much more likely to forget that information as soon as the test is over. Really holding onto the material you learned (and making exam seasons less stressful) requires consistent and well-spaced study sessions.
Instead of saving your studying for before a test, briefly review material you learned once a week. If you are studying for an exam, space out your studying up to several weeks (or even months, depending on the test) leading up to the exam day. This can help you retain the information long term.
5. Set study goals for each session.
Set study goals for each session of studying you have. These can be time-based or content-based. For example, you might aim to study for two hours, or review three chapters of your textbook—or both.
Don’t be too harsh on yourself if you didn’t get through as much as you had planned; sometimes studying can take longer than expected. Keep taking well-spaced breaks, and schedule another study session.
6. Reward yourself.
Rewarding yourself with treats—“bribing” yourself—has been linked to better self-control, and can be helpful in forming good habits [ 5 ]. Telling yourself you’ll get a small reward if you finish the section you wanted to get through, or perhaps a larger reward if you have a productive day of studying, can be good motivation to get to your goal.
Small rewards can be a candy bar, a hot drink from your favorite coffee shop, a quick game of your choice, or a short episode of a TV show. Bigger rewards for a long day of studying or getting done with an exam can include getting your favorite meal, spending some time relaxing with friends, or making time for your favorite activity.
7. Study with a group.
There are several benefits to forming a study group. Group members can help one another work through difficult problems, provide encouragement, hold each other accountable to studying goals, provide different perspectives, and make studying more enjoyable. Even explaining difficult concepts to others can help with comprehension and retention.
If you have a group study session, set a goal the group will work towards and take periodic breaks as you would studying by yourself.
8. Take practice tests.
Tests and practice tests have been long seen as useful tools to help students learn and retain information. Besides revealing gaps in knowledge and reducing exam anxiety, being tested makes us retrieve information from memory—a powerful, study-backed way of holding onto information we’ve learned [ 6 ].
Don’t have a practice exam? There are several ways you can “test” yourself and gain the same benefits. Try the following methods:
Write your own questions
Search for practice questions online
Have a friend quiz you
9. Use your own words.
Expressing an idea in your own words increases your understanding of a subject and helps your brain hang on to information. After you read a section of text, summarize important points by paraphrasing.
10. Ask for help.
You might find yourself stuck on a problem or unable to understand the explanation in a textbook. Somebody who is able to walk through the issue with you might provide the fresh explanation you need. Approach your teacher or professor, teaching assistant, friend, or study group member for new ways to understand what you’re stuck on. Feel like you can benefit from being coached through a subject? Consider looking for a tutor.
And don’t forget the myriad online tools that might be at your disposal, like the Khan Academy . A quick search through Google or YouTube can also surface helpful articles or videos on subjects you’re trying to grasp.
11. Take care of yourself.
At the end of the day, your brain is an organ in your body—take care of it by taking care of yourself. Get regular exercise, eat well, don’t overdrink, get good sleep, and take care of your mental wellbeing.
Sleep: Studies have linked sleep deprivation to decreased cognitive function, including reduced attention spans and doing worse on tests [ 7 ]. Everybody’s sleep needs are different, but people typically need between seven and eight-and-a-half hours of sleep a night. Plus, getting more sleep can make you happier and benefit your social life.
Food: Try to incorporate more fruits, vegetables, plant sources of proteins, nuts, and unsaturated oils like olive oil into your diet, all of which have been linked to better cognitive performance [ 8 ].
Exercise: Exercise brings oxygen to the part of your brain responsible for thought, encourages the development of new nerve cells, and boosts brain cell connections [ 8 ]. This makes for brains that are more neuroplastic and efficient—plus it brings a host of other health benefits, like lower blood pressure, reduced mental stress, and weight control.
Mental wellness: Mental health is important because it helps us deal with stress, improves our relationships with others, allows us to live more meaningfully, and be more productive in our work. Exercising, eating well, and getting good sleep can each boost our mental health. But there are other ways of fortifying mental strength, such as connecting with others, practicing gratitude, meditating, and developing a sense of meaning in life [ 9 ].
Forming good habits can be difficult, but starting with small, achievable steps can set you up to have consistent study habits for the rest of your life. Explore more personal development courses from leading universities and institutions on Coursera. Sign up for a free 7-day trial and start learning today.
Looking to get a degree? Knowing what’s out there is a good first step. Take a look at bachelor’s and master’s degrees on Coursera .
New York Times. " Forget What You Know About Good Study Habits , https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/07/health/views/07mind.html." Accessed July 27, 2022.
University of Wollongong Australia. " Is it OK to listen to music while studying? , https://www.uow.edu.au/media/2019/is-it-ok-to-listen-to-music-while-studying.php." Accessed July 27, 2022.
TIME Magazine. " The Exact Perfect Amount of Time to Take a Break, According to Data , https://time.com/3518053/perfect-break/." Accessed July 27, 2022.
Bustle. " A New Study Says Scrolling Through Social Media Doesn’t Actually Give You A Mental Break , https://www.bustle.com/p/taking-a-break-by-looking-at-social-media-doesnt-help-your-mind-reset-a-new-study-says-18682642." Accessed July 27, 2022.
PsychCentral. " The Pscyhology of Rewarding Yourself with Treats , https://psychcentral.com/blog/psychology-rewarding-yourself-with-treats." Accessed July 27, 2022.
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50 Best Graduate Research Institutes
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Over half of all research activity conducted in the United States takes place at research universities. These hubs of academic discovery are credited with groundbreaking research including life-saving drugs, medical treatments, and vaccines as well as the latest and greatest advancements in engineering and technology.
From a student's perspective, graduate research institutes provide opportunities for hands-on learning, fellowships, and even prestige. Thus, prospective grad students with dreams of becoming leaders in their respective fields would be wise to identify the schools and research institutes known for their high research activity and expenditures, cutting-edge facilities and resources, and innovative approaches to collaborative study. To help with this discovery process, our team of editors has identified the very best institutes at the top research universities around the country. The initial pool of research universities is drawn from universities with a Carnegie classification of R1: Research Universities (Highest research activity) .
Top 10 Best Graduate Research Institutes
Rating and ranking methodology.
University R&D Expenditures
- Over $2 million – 3 points
- Over $1 million – 2 points
- Over $500,000 – 1 point
Awards and Recognition (Related to Research)
- National Level – 2 points
- Regional Level – 1 point
LEED Certified Facilities
- Platinum – 3 points
- Gold – 2 points
- Silver – 1 point
Interdisciplinary Approach – 1 point
MGP (Majority Graduate/Professional) Enrollment – 1 point
RU/VH (Very High Research Activity) – 1 point
"Wow" Factor –1 point awarded for each feature that "wowed" us
Explore these promoted online degree programs.
These top, accredited schools offer a variety of online graduate degree programs. Figuring out where to apply? Consider one of these online Master’s or PhD programs.
Best Graduate Research Institutes
The research institutes that we present below are exceptional in that they receive support and funding from the most active graduate research universities in the country. These are institutions with the most updated facilities and interdisciplinary programs in the nation.
We have applied the rating and ranking methodology above and listed them here in descending order. In the case of a tie, we awarded the higher ranking to the most affordable school affiliated with the research institute. Please note that the dollar amounts listed for R&D expenditures represent thousands of dollars. For example, an expenditure listed as $200,000 actually indicates a figure of $200 million.
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Center for Advanced Computing
R&D Expenditures : $883,292
The Cornell University Center for Advanced Computing (CAC) in Ithaca New York is one of the leaders in creating data solutions, high performance computing systems, and applications that are instrumental in successful research. Founded in 1985, CAC was one of the original five supercomputer centers to provide high-speed technology for research professionals. The center provides computing resources based in software including Red Hat Linuz, Hadoop, CentOS, Eucalyptus and MySQL. The CAC works with a national community as partners of the National Science Foundation-funded Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment.
More information on Cornell University
New York City, NY
Points : 11 R&D Expenditures : $890,642
Founded in 1995 at Columbia University, the Earth Institute consists of 30 research centers and over 850 scientists, students, and fellows working toward sustainable development. The cutting-edge projects conducted here are rooted in the mission that existing science and technology can be utilized to meet the needs of the impoverished worldwide. By employing a multidisciplinary approach of scientific study, research, and education outreach, this institute works toward establishing stability for global issues facing climate, urbanization, energy, poverty, and ecosystems. The Earth Institute is also home to the Marie Tharp Fellowship, awarded to three outstanding female earth scientists per year.
More information on Columbia University
Los Angeles, CA
UCLA Institute of the Environment and Sustainability
Points : 10 R&D Expenditures : $966,659
The UCLA Institute of Environment and Sustainability was founded in 1997 to address a need for pivotal research in global environment and sustainability issues. This institute's programming is an interdisciplinary approach combining education, research and outreach to the community. By both distributing knowledge and providing active solutions, UCLA encourages the next generation to be strong leaders in improving the planet's health. The research programs associated with these efforts focus on climate change, energy, biodiversity, air and water quality, environmental economics, and related areas.
More information on the University of California Los Angeles
Points : 9 R&D Expenditures : $588,088
The BIO5 Institute was founded in 2001 as a result of the Technology and Research Initiative (TRIF). Its name is derived from its interdisciplinary approach to research, which promotes collaboration amongst five core disciplines: Agriculture, Engineering, Medicine, Pharmacy, and Science. The Institute brings together hundreds of researchers from more than 20 different schools and departments across the university. The result is innovative solutions to global biological problems such as disease, nutrition, hunger, and the environment. Graduate students work alongside top geneticists, biochemists, engineers, computer scientists, mathematicians, and other experts to perform cooperative research.
More information on the University of Arizona
Points : 8 R&D Expenditures : $856,806
Founded to serve the growing needs of the geriatric population, the Aging Institute at the University of Pittsburgh is committed to delivering full-service, high-quality healthcare. This institute is part of a large network of experts in geriatric medicine, providing more resources in the field than most medical centers in the nation. In addition to caring for older adults, AI performs clinical trials that have proven pivotal in the study and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, depression, and the effects of caregiving on families.
More information on the University of Pittsburgh
Duke Clinical Research Institute
Points : 8 R&D Expenditures : $992,821
Duke Clinical Research Institute is a world-renowned, state-of-the-art facility that has proven itself a leader in scientific investigation. While it's known for groundbreaking cardiology research, DCRI's expertise spans pediatrics, geriatrics, primary care, proteomics, oncology, and other specialties. Duke's research unit performs studies in 65 countries, the results of which have been published in more than 9,300 peer-reviewed journals. In order to produce the most comprehensive results, DCRI's clinical trials consider long-term outcomes, quality of life, and economic factors.
More information on Duke University
Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute
Points : 8 R&D Expenditures : $645,333
Since its establishment in 1986, the Stanley Mann Children's Research Institute has become one of the most prominent pediatric research facilities in the country. The Institute is comprised of ten core facilities including the Clinical Research Unit, the Pritzker Research Library, and the Research Histology Library. Graduate students engaged in research at Stanley Manne belong to one of three graduate programs at Northwestern University: the Driskill Graduate Program in Life Sciences, the Medical Scientist Training Program, and Northwestern University's Interdepartmental Neuroscience PhD program.
More information on Northwestern University
Center for Transportation Research
Points : 7 R&D Expenditures : $585,251
As one of the oldest institutes on our list, the Center for Transportation Research at The University of Texas at Austin facilitated research designed to foster advancements in transportation science and technology. Recognized as one of the leading facilities of its kind, the Center promotes research in nearly every aspect of transportation including economics, transportation policy, driver behavior, traffic congestion relief, and public transit. Over 200 graduate and undergraduate engage in research at the center each year, and its research library houses over 30,000 publications.
More information on University of Texas at Austin
The Hormel Institute
Points : 7 R&D Expenditures : $876,870
The Hormel Institute of the University of Minnesota is a globally recognized leader in revealing the dietary factors that can control or prevent cancer growth. A few of the groundbreaking discoveries attributed to Hormel include coining the terms omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids and revealing the anti-cancer benefits of green tea compounds. This institute utilizes High Performance Computing (HPC), expressly designed for biomedical research, scientific advances, and new drug development in cancer research. HPC allows scientists to screen millions of molecules to find matches between a chemical and its protein target, a resource often less available in other laboratory facilities.
More information on University of Minnesota
Berkeley Energy & Climate Institute
Points : 7 R&D Expenditures : $744,343
Berkeley Energy and Climate Institute (BECI) was established in 2010 in collaboration with the University of California and external research partners. BECI brings in top-performing PhD students and respected figures in policy, business, and research. The primary objectives of this institute are to increase interdisciplinary research and improve the marketing of climate and energy education throughout the college and beyond. The educational programming of BECI is another key component, as its curriculum is actively cultivating a next generation of leaders and energy innovators.
More information on the University of California Berkeley
Mershon Center for International Security Studies
Points : 7 R&D Expenditures : $815,075
The Mershon Center for International Security Studies is an academic think tank located at Ohio State University. Founded in 1952, this research institution was established to conduct investigations in the fields of security and international relations. The three primary focus areas of this center are use of force and diplomacy, decisional processes that affect security, and institutions currently managing violent conflict. This spectrum of research is intended to promote deeper understanding of global national security practices. Mershon Center's pool of scholars include military fellows, doctoral candidates, post-docs, and permanent faculty.
More information on the Ohio State University
M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
Points : 7 R&D Expenditures : $794,980
Located in Houston as part of the Texas Medical Center, the MD Anderson Cancer Center is a globally respected institution dedicated to cancer patient care, education, research, and prevention. The center was recently ranked number one in U.S. News & World Report's "Best Hospitals" for cancer care. Over 1 million individuals have been cared for since MD Anderson's inception in 1944, and in 2013 alone, the center provided $196 million worth of uncompensated care. Education is a key component of this center, offering a wide spectrum of training opportunities for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows.
More information on the University of Texas
Information Sciences Institute
Points : 7 R&D Expenditures : $687,222
The Information Sciences Institute is a division of the University of Southern California's Viterbi School of Engineering. As one of the country's preeminent computer research institutes, ISI is the recipient of nearly $60 million in federal and corporate research funding each year. Among its many research areas are intelligent systems, cybersecurity, quantum computation, and machine translation. The institute also partners with the USC Viterbi School's Space Engineering Research Center to study space systems and technology. These research activities are conducted by the institute's approximately 350 faculty, research scientists, graduate students, and staff.
More information on the University of Southern California
The Sydney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center
Points : 7 R&D Expenditures : $2,168,568
The Sydney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University is one of just 45 facilities in the country to be designated a comprehensive cancer center by the National Cancer Institute and the only one in the state of Maryland. The Center has been awarded SPOREs (Specialized Programs of Research Excellence) in seven different areas of cancer research: lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, and lymphoma. In addition to conducting laboratory research and clinical studies, the center is committed to providing cancer education and support services to the surrounding community.families.
More information on Johns Hopkins University
College Station, TX
Texas A&M Institute for Genomic Medicine
Points : 6 R&D Expenditures : $854,214
The Texas A&M Institute for Genomic Medicine (TIGM) is a scientific community that has become an essential source for researchers in need of knockout mice and embryonic stem cells. TIGM has the world's largest collection of genetically modified mouse cells, shared with over 270 academic and commercial institutions in 26 countries. The use of these resources have resulted in more than 50 peer-reviewed publications highlighting the use of TIGM mice or cells. This institute's on-site research projects investigate environment and natural resources, policy and economics, health and food science, and animals.
More information on Texas A&M University
UAB Center for AIDS Research
Points : 6 R&D Expenditures : $428,563
UAB Center for AID's research is one of the seven inaugural centers for AIDS research designated by the National Institute of Health and is a global leader in the field. Researchers at the Institute were the first to make the standard three-drug HIV treatment available to patients and are also credited with the discovery of the simian virus, which traced the spread of HIV to humans. The Institute's core facilities promote interdisciplinary collaboration among scientists and students in the fields of behavioral sciences, biostatistics, genomics, and virology among others.
More information on the University of Alabama – Birmingham
California National Primate Research Center
Points : 6 R&D Expenditures : $711,721
The California National Primate Research Center works to improve human health by studying non-human primates. The institute currently employs 51 scientists and graduate students who are collectively engaged in 85 active projects. As home to over 5,000 Rhesus Macaques and Titi Monkeys, the center is also a breeding facility. CNPRC offers graduate research opportunities for students enrolled in a broad range of programs and courses including biomedical engineering, neuroscience, comparative pathology, and psychology. An externship in veterinary science is also available from UC Davis as is a residency in primate medicine.
More information on the University of California Davis
New Brunswick, NJ
Rutgers Energy Institute
Points : 6 R&D Expenditures : $644,116
The Rutgers Energy Institute is committed to developing sustainable solutions for energy production and helping the United States become less dependent on fossil fuels. REI is comprised of eighteen different groups and centers including the Center for Advanced Energy Systems, the Rutgers Climate Institute, the Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, and the Waksman Institute of Microbiology. Fellowships are available for third-year graduate students as well as post-doctoral students. These fellowships provide cost support for a one-year appointment as students probe topics in basic and applied science, engineering, economics, and policy.
More information on Rutgers University
Institute for Data Engineering and Science
Points : 6 R&D Expenditures : $725,550
The Institute for Data Engineering and Science, a division of the Georgia Institute of Technology, is one of the nation's most highly-regarded centers for technological research. The collaborative model of this center brings together students, industry, and government, all with the goal of making a positive impact on society. Among many others, this institute's core research areas cover bioengineering, national security, people and technology, energy and sustainable infrastructure, robotics, and systems. The Data Engineering students at Georgia Tech are consistently in demand due to the immersive, experiential education they receive from day one.
More information on the Georgia Institute of Technology
Center for Neuroscience and Society
Points : 6 R&D Expenditures : $856,806
The Center for Neuroscience & Society (CNS) at the University of Pennsylvania is a collective of faculty and students from the departments of Arts and Sciences, Medicine, Law, Engineering, and Applied Science. The work done at this center addresses the social, legal, and ethical implications in the world of neuroscience. Through extensive collaboration across many different academic disciplines, CNS is increasing public understanding of neuroscience's potential impact on society. This center has created a range of educational programs including the Public Talks series, Neuroscience Bootcamp, and preceptorials.
More information on the University of Pennsylvania
New Haven, CT
Yale Cardiovascular Research Center
Points : 6 R&D Expenditures : $772,840
Yale Cardiovascular Research Center (YCVRC) at Yale University is home to more than 100 specialists in developmental and cell biology, genetics, stem cells, cardiomyocyte biology, and signaling. YCVRC is renowned for its remarkable facilities that include 2D and 3D ultrasound imaging, Micro CT imaging for rodents, a confocal microscopy laboratory, and many other related resources. The Clinical Research division of this center conducts a range of trials dedicated to advancing treatment opportunities in cardiovascular medicine. In over 500 clinical trials, this division has contributed to the enrichment of analysis methods used in interventional cardiology.
More information on Yale University
Children's Nutrition Research Center
Points : 5 R&D Expenditures : $496,314
The Children's Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine is one of just six USDA human nutrition research centers in the United States. The center operates in conjunction with Texas Children's Hospital and is run by 50 faculty researchers and over 200 staff members. The center has been publishing findings related to childhood nutrition since 1978 and continues to probe important issues such as nutrient-gene interactions, metabolism of essential mineral nutrients, cardiovascular disease, childhood obesity, lactation and phytonutrient biochemistry.
More information on Baylor College of Medicine
The Biodesign Institute
Points : 5 R&D Expenditures : $426,651
Researchers at Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute are committed to discovering "bioinspired" answers to some of the world's most complex and pressing issues including vaccine delivery, cancer treatment, infectious diseases, air and water contamination, biomedicine, and much more. The Institute's dozens of labs and centers are housed among 350,000 square feet of LEED certified facilities. Since its establishment in 2003, it has facilitated 50 invention disclosures and contributed to the founding of over a dozen companies. As a result, it was awarded the state's "Excellence in Economic Development Award" in 2009.
More information on the Arizona State University
Fralin Life Science Institute
Points : 5 R&D Expenditures : $513,149
Established in 2008, the Fralin Life Science Institute is committed to studying key issues in life sciences such as vector-borne disease, infectious disease, organismal biology, obesity, and cancer biology. As a testament to ongoing growth and progress, three new laboratories at the Institute are currently being renovated. These labs will house a new insectary to support the work of the Vector-borne Research Group. In 2015, a new Global Change Center was also added to the Institute. Its focus will include five emerging global threats: habitat loss, pollution, invasive species, disease, and climate change.
More information on Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
University of Cincinnati Cancer Institute
Points : 5 R&D Expenditures : $422,873
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati Cancer Institute have access to state-of-the-art core facilities including a tissue and blood bank, a compound library, and a pre-clinical imaging center. Here, students work alongside physicians and scientists as they study different types of cancers such as brain tumors, breast cancer, lung cancer, sarcoma, and skin cancer. In addition to conducting cutting-edge cancer research, the Institute is committed to providing high-level treatment to cancer patients in the Greater Cincinnati metropolitan area, especially those with complex and advanced disease.
More information on the University of Cincinnati
Chapel Hill, NC
The Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research
Points : 5 R&D Expenditures : $973,007
The Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, a unit of the University of North Carolina Division of Health Affairs, is made up of five health science schools, the Division of Academic Affairs, and outside members of the healthcare community. Sheps Center strives to improve the life quality of individuals through interdisciplinary programs that address needed changes in health care services. Among the center's research programs include medical practice and prevention, health disparities, mental health and substance abuse, and long-term care.
More information on the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Points : 5 R&D Expenditures : $708,526
The University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) was formed to make discoveries in the life sciences, human and natural resources, and agriculture. UF/IFAS prides itself on accomplishments made in teaching and research, especially throughout Florida's food industries. One project of significance was the folic acid research conducted at this center, which contributed to considerable drops in neural tube birth defects throughout the world. In addition to its headquarter offices, this institute has established 12 education centers, 4 demonstration sites, and biological field stations throughout the state.
More information on the University of Florida
West Lafayette, IN
Birck Nanotechnology Center
Points : 5 R&D Expenditures : $564,923
The Birck Nanotechnology Center was established in 2005 and is committed to the advancement of nanoscale science and engineering as well as the development of new nanotechnologies to address issues in computing, the environment, energy independence, security, health, and communications. The facility occupies 186,000 square feet of laboratory and office space where 45 faculty members and up to 180 graduate students converge to conduct research involving crystal growth, bio-nanotechnology, molecular electronics, precision micromachining, and more. The BNC facility is a global leader in nanotechnology and presents students with one-of-a kind research opportunities in the field.
More information on Purdue University
Harvard Stem Cell Institute
Points : 5 R&D Expenditures : $1,012,766
The Harvard Stem Cell Institute brings together 255 faculty from various departments throughout the university to engage in interdisciplinary stem cell research. The purpose of this research is multi-faceted but includes producing disease-specific stem cells so that scientists can study the diseases apart from patients and develop drugs and treatments to target diseases. Researchers at the institute also study how stem cells can be treatments themselves, replacing damaged or diseased cells in the body. Graduate students may be eligible for the HSCI Medical Scientist Training Fellowship.
More information on Harvard University
Ann Arbor, MI
Institute for Healthcare Policy & Innovation
Points : 5 R&D Expenditures : $1,375,117
Founded in 2011, the Institute for Healthcare Policy & Innovation is affiliated with both the University of Michigan Health System and the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System. Comprised of over 460 faculty members, the Institute aims to evaluate health care reforms, foster healthier communities, facilitate valuable healthcare plans, and promote high-tech health care delivery. In the fiscal year 2015, the Institute spent $123 million in healthcare research. The 87,000 square foot facility located in UM's North Campus Research Complex was designed to support interdisciplinary collaboration amongst faculty members.
More information on University of Michigan
Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Points : 5 R&D Expenditures : $959,247
Established in 2003 through a grant from Fred Kavli and the Kavli Foundation, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology seeks to answer some of the most complex questions about our universe, including its composition and origins. Over 100 researchers and affiliates converge at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to study topics such as galaxy clusters, dark matter and dark energy, particle acceleration, and high-energy astrophysics. Graduate students may opt for a research rotation with a different faculty member each quarter in order to gain multiple perspectives on research topics.
More information on Stanford University
MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
Points : 5 R&D Expenditures : $908,017
Known as CSAIL, the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT is the largest research institute at the university. It brings together over 100 principal investigators from eight different departments who study artificial intelligence, systems, and theory. CSAIL's research efforts are supported by funding from government agencies such as the Department of Defense and the National Science Foundation as well as corporate sponsorships with companies such as Boeing, Microsoft, and Cisco. Research opportunities are available for graduate students in the areas of engineering, educational technology, and related fields of study.
More information on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Children's Medical Center Research Institute
R&D Expenditures : $434,627
The primary mission of the Children's Medical Center Research Institute at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center is to study metabolic disturbances and how they affect diseases, especially cancer. Here, scientists, doctors, and students work to detect these disturbances, understand their negative impact on cell function, and discover ways to treat them. The Center's state-of-the-art facilities include The Moody Foundation Flow Cytometry Facility, the Metabolomics Facility, the Sequencing Facility, and the Mouse Genome Engineering Facility.
More information on the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Center for Drug Discovery and Innovation
Points : 4 R&D Expenditures : $488,641
Designated as a Florida Center of Excellence, The Center for Drug Discovery and Innovation (CDDI) is committed to the development of modern drug treatments to combat disease. The Institute's core facilities support its primary research areas, which include small molecule production and the molecular analysis of proteins. These facilities include the Chemodiversity Facility, the Proteomics Facility, and the High Field NMR Core Facility. Among its most current research breakthroughs is findings related to the spread of malaria, which could result in life-saving treatments.
More information on the University of South Florida
Points : 4 R&D Expenditures : $1,192,513
UW Madison's Waisman Center was founded in order to promote knowledge of human development, developmental disabilities, and neurodegenerative diseases. It is home to both a Eunice Kennedy Shriver Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center and a University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities. Graduate students in behavioral, biological, and social sciences work alongside faculty members from 25 different university departments as they probe such topics as social development, language acquisition, and the role of family in human development. In addition to its research efforts, the Waisman Center also provides training for students as well as services for the developmentally disabled and their families.
More information on the University of Wisconsin Madison
La Jolla, CA
Institute of Engineering in Medicine
Points : 4 R&D Expenditures : $1,042,841
Established in 2008, The Institute of Engineering in Medicine at the University of California – San Diego now has over 130 faculty members. These faculty members come from three distinct schools—the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, the Jacobs School of Engineering, and the School of Medicine. The Institute works to apply engineering to medicine in a way that provides practical solutions to common medical issues. Using technology such as imaging, nanotechnology, tissue engineering and vaccine engineering, the IEM tackles diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.
More information on the University of California San Diego
Institute for Global Health
Points : 4 R&D Expenditures : $411,268
The Institute of Global Health at The University of Maryland is committed to uncovering new and better ways of treating, controlling, and eliminating diseases that affect people around the world such as malaria, Ebola, measles, and others. Today, the institute is comprised of two departments: the Center for Vaccine Development and the Division of Malaria Research. Over 30 faculty physicians and scientists perform groundbreaking research at the IGH. Its collaborative approach invites interdisciplinary work with of other departments and schools within and beyond the university's School of Medicine.
More information at the University of Maryland – Baltimore
Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology
Points : 4 R&D Expenditures : $621,733
Established in 1983, the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology is a hub of interdisciplinary research organized around four research themes: Biological Intelligence, Human-Computer Intelligent Interaction, Integrative Imaging, and Molecular and Electronic Nanostructures. The Institute is housed within a 313,000-square-foot, state-of-the-art facility comprised of specialized laboratories, offices, and meeting spaces. Graduate students are afforded the opportunity to engage in research at the Institute through the Beckman Graduate Fellows Program funded by the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation.
More information on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
East Lansing, MI
Points : 4 R&D Expenditures : $526,906
The Bioeconomy Institute at Michigan State University conducts research and provides resources in an effort to support companies in their efforts to employ sustainable practices. The 138,000-square-foot facility is comprised of 31,000 square feet of laboratories, which is used by approximately 125 researchers, as well as a 105-seat auditorium and over 60 professional offices. Recently, a consortium headquartered at the Institute received one of just 6 "i6 Green Challenge" grants from the U.S. Department of Commerce's Economic Development Administration.
More information on Michigan State University
Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences
Points : 4 R&D Expenditures : $419,011
The Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences at Case Western University conducts research in the following three areas: spectroscopy, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and crystallography. Currently, the Center is working on the construction of the National Synchrotron Light Source II, a state-of-the-art electron storage ring that will enable researchers to produce x-rays more than ten times brighter than the original NSLS. It is also collaborating with the National Science Foundation to create a new technology in synchrotron footprinting called the XFP beamline.
More information on Case Western Reserve University
Institute of Imaging Science
Points : 4 R&D Expenditures : $683,890
The Institute of Imaging Science at Vanderbilt University is housed within a four-floor, 42,000-square-foot state-of-the-art facility. The $28 million project was built in 2007 to accommodate the research activities of 42 faculty members and over 80 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. The Institute is comprised of five different centers including the Center for Small Animal Imaging, the Center for Human Aging, and the Center for Computational Imaging. As an interdisciplinary research institute, VUIIS collaborates with many different colleges and departments across the university including the schools of medicine, engineering, law, and arts and sciences.
More information on Vanderbilt University
Saint Louis, MO
Center for Biomedical Informatics
Points : 4 R&D Expenditures : $664,752
Founded in 2007, the Center for Biomedical Informatics at Washington University in St. Louis is a partnership with BJC Healthcare. The Center is comprised of fourteen divisions including the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, the Center for Computational Biology, the Siteman Cancer Center, and the Center for Kidney Disease Research. Graduate students engaged in research at the institute may be involved in the study of a variety of different topics at the university such as Molecular Genetics and Genomics, Human and Statistical Genetics, Computational Biology, and Genetic Epidemiology.
More information on Washington University in St. Louis
Becker Friedman Institute for Research in Economics
Points : 4 R&D Expenditures : $390,082
Established in 2011, the Gary Becker Milton Friedman Institute for Research in Economics brings together the most prominent minds in economics. In fact, nearly 50 renowned scholars visit the institute each year to deliver compelling presentations, many of them from other countries. The institute's interdisciplinary approach fosters collaboration among professors and students from the Booth School of Business, the Department of Economics, the Law School, and the Harris School of Public Policy as they study topics such as long-term federal debt, economic growth, climate change, and health care finance.
More information on the University of Chicago
Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute
Points : 3 R&D Expenditures : $411,020
Thanks to a $6.5 million grant from The Anschutz Foundation, the Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute has recently expanded. The new 38,000-square-foot will house new labs where ophthalmologists, scientists, and graduate students will continue to study eye health. Notably, Institute scientists were the first in the country to perform femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. It was also the first eye institute to research retina stimulation with photovoltaic nanoparticles, a procedure that could reverse retinal diseases that cause blindness.
More information on the University of Colorado – Denver
Salt Lake City, UT
Utah High Energy Astrophysics Institute
Points : 3 R&D Expenditures : $486,140
The Utah High Energy Astrophysics Unit at the University of Utah was established in 1991 with the goal of providing resources and support to visiting scientists. In 1998, the mission of the institute grew to include the facilitation of collaborative study among astrophysics researchers throughout the state. Today, faculty members and graduate students probe topics such as cosmology, galaxy formation, quark-gluon plasma, and general relativity. In conjunction with the university's South Physics Observatory, the institute works to promote public understanding and support of the field of astrophysics.
More information on the University of Utah
Plants for Human Health Institute
Points : 3 R&D Expenditures : $446,112
The Plants for Human Health Institute at North Carolina State University is affiliated with the school's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, the institute consults with faculty from the departments of horticulture science, bioprocessing and nutrition sciences, and plant and microbial biology among others. Their combined mission is to conduct cutting-edge research in the hopes of uncovering plant-based solutions to human health issues. Among the current research projects at the institute is the study of the anti-cancer and anti-diabetic properties of blueberries as well as their ability to treat Parkinson's disease.
More information on North Carolina State University
College Park, MD
Institute for Research in Electronics & Applied Physics
Points : 3 R&D Expenditures : $485,051
The Institute for Research in Electronics & Applied Physics is an interdisciplinary research institute that encourages faculty and student collaboration among the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences and the A. James Clark School of Engineering. The institute's areas of focus include high-temperature plasma physics, microwave electronics, biophysics, nanoscience, nanotechnology, and plasma spectroscopy. Graduate students work on their dissertations alongside the institute's 35+ faculty members and benefit from presentations of visiting scientists. In addition to graduate research, the institute also sponsors TREND, an undergraduate research program affiliated with the National Science Center.
More information on the University of Maryland
Iowa City, IA
IIHR – Hydroscience and Engineering
Points : 3 R&D Expenditures : $449,147
Headquarter ed in the C. Maxwell Stanley Hydraulics Laboratory, the IIHR- Hydroscience & Engineering at the University of Iowa is a multi-disciplinary institute dedicated to the study of basic fluid mechanics, laboratory experimentation, and computational approaches to understanding water. Currently, approximately 90 graduate students are participating in active research at IIHR, most of them on PhD tracks. About half of these students are international students, and collectively, they represent sixteen different countries. The institute is home to the Iowa Flood Center, the first university-based center in the country dedicated to the study of floods.
More information on the University of Iowa
Center for Drug Use and HIV Research
Points : 3 R&D Expenditures : $523,623
The Center for Drug Use and HIV Research is the first center for socio-behavioral study of substance abuse and HIV in the country. Funded by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the center seeks to end the HIV epidemic amongst drug users by conducting interdisciplinary research to inform program and policy initiatives. CDUHR is constantly expanding and is now comprised of over 75 affiliated investigators, up from only 6 when the center was established in 1998. Faculty and graduate students conducting research at the center collaborate with colleagues from three other institutions: Mount Sinai, the National Development & Research Institutes, Inc., and the John Jay College of Criminal Justice.
More information on New York University
Emory Global Health Institute
Points : 3 R&D Expenditures : $558,600
Emory Global Health Institute was founded in 2006 in accordance with Emory University's 2005-2015 strategic plan. The Institute works to solve global health problems by facilitating interdisciplinary research, forming strong alliances with global health partners, and training the next generation of leaders in global health. At the institute, faculty and student researchers explore topics such as drug discovery, health care delivery, migrant health, and vaccines. EGHI oversees a variety of programs for graduate students including the Emory Global Health Case Competition, the Field Scholars Awards Program, and the Global Health Scholars Symposium.
More Information on Emory University
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16 Study Tips for College: Building good study habits to succeed
College is an exciting and life-changing experience. It may be the first time you’ll be living on your own, and it’s a fantastic opportunity to make friends, meet new people, and learn about your interests both personally and professionally. However, adjusting to college life can be overwhelming – and figuring out a solid study routine is no exception! Take a look at these study tips for college to help you succeed.
How To Find the Most Effective Study Habits
16 study tips for college:, 1. organization is key, 2. plan ahead, 3. take good notes, 4. find a routine, 5. study with friends, 6. ask for help, 7. teach someone, 8. switch up your study spots, 9. eliminate distractions, 10. don’t cram, 11. memorize vs. understand, 12. review and reorganize your notes, 13. study smarter, not harder, 14. use the reward system, 15. take breaks, 16. be confident about your studies, now that you have a better understanding of these study tips for college, make sure your college writing stays in tip-top shape.
There’s no magic formula or set prescription for how to study effectively…every student is different! You might study well in a library, while your roommate studies better in his or her dorm room. The key is to try out different studying methods – including different study environments – to figure out what works best for YOU.
First, Focus on Preparation.
First and foremost, make sure you get a college planner. This can be a planner with a creative design, a plain notebook, a wall calendar, or even a small dry erase calendar for your desk that changes each month. A wall calendar or desk calendar is best for double-checking appointments, events, and due dates while a notebook planner of some sort will be best for planning on-the-go, wherever you are. This planner will keep you in check when you’re in class or in a meeting with your advisor.
If digital works better for you (since you can sync it with just about anything – your computer, phone, tablet), think about setting up an agenda on your mobile device. You can set up reminders for test dates, department events, study times, and assignment due dates. Additionally, you can create a study outline on your device in something like Google Docs, Microsoft Word, or another digital format that works for you.
Create a study plan at the beginning of the semester based on your course syllabus. Ideally, you should study a little bit every day throughout the week —even just 20 minutes can make a huge difference—so you don’t wind up cramming and stressing out right before the big exam.
Studying starts in the classroom. Pay attention and take good notes , so when you’re studying later, you’re just reviewing information (instead of learning it for the first time). Speak with your professor about recording lectures on your phone. A recording can complement your notes so you can go back and re-listen to the information in case there are other details you pick up on later to note. Effective note-taking strategies can have a direct impact on your study habits and is one of the most important study tips for college.
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Getting yourself into a study routine is one of the best ways to make sure that studying becomes a part of your everyday habit. Figure out what time of day works best for you and make a real effort to dedicate that time to reviewing notes, videos, and other related resources.
Pick times during the week to try out your studying. You can try studying in the morning on one day, the afternoon another day, and in the evening if that works best for you when there are no distractions at the end of the night. Once you’ve decided which time works best for you, try to stick with that time of day every day (or at least 3 days a week) to get in the habit of studying consistently. You might wind up rearranging your routine due to extracurricular activities, time with friends, and other commitments, but be sure to prioritize your studies and get them done in one way or another.
Teamwork is Essential
Encouraging friends to study with you can make everything more fun and productive! Ask your classmates to study with you at a certain time and location. For example, you can ask your biology colleagues to study with you after class for an hour at the school cafe. You can set up your computers at a table together and grab some snacks and coffee to enjoy the time.
The same goes for studying with your friends. If you’re not in a class with them, studying together in-person can help you hold each other accountable. When you make plans with friends, you don’t want to be that person who cancels or doesn’t show, right?
If you really don’t understand a concept, ask questions! Stop by your professors’ offices during their office hours, or contact classmates and professors via email. Some classes might even have a Facebook Group to keep students engaged and to create an environment to ask questions outside of class. Either way, your professors will be on your side – nonjudgmental, wanting to help you understand the class in its entirety.
Teaching a friend, family member, or even your pet the material is a great way to see how well you know it! When you explain it to someone else, you’ll have a better grasp of which information you already have mastered and which information you should revisit for yourself.
You can create a fun PowerPoint or Google Slides presentation, get creative and present the information in a way that’s easy for you and your audience to understand. Who knows – you might even use that presentation in the future for your classmates!
Create an Ambiance
Studying in the same spot can get tedious, so why not mix it up and get a new perspective on things? College campuses have tons of study spots for students—from the library to the campus lawn to local cafes (think back to studying with friends and finding an area to set up for an hour or for the day). Take advantage of these study areas, both indoors and outdoors, and give yourself a new view every day!
Studying without distractions is crucial. If you’re studying alone, try to find a quiet space or put headphones in to block out noise from your surroundings. If you’re in an area trying to study and it’s just not working out, relocate. It might be frustrating to have to pick up and move, but it will be worth it once you’re in a good environment.
Consider putting your phone on silent or vibrate too – you can always respond to your messages after your study session!
How to Approach Studying
While it may seem like a good idea to learn an entire semester’s worth of information in one night, it’s not an effective study habit, and it can cause a lot of unnecessary stress. Instead, study a little bit of information every day for at least 20 – 30 minutes. You’ll likely remember more later and you’ll feel calm and prepared when it comes to exam time.
One of the study tips for college that can make a massive difference in how you approach new information is knowing the difference between memorizing the material and understanding it. Memorizing information isn’t actually learning the information—it’s just helping you learn how to repeat it during a finite time.
For example, if you’re studying for a Spanish exam and you’re memorizing a conjugated verb chart, remembering what the verbs look like in written form will help you remember the information for that exam. However, you might forget the meanings of the verbs and how to use them in a sentence afterward since it’s a very specific way of studying. This may catch up with you when you take the next level up of Spanish.
Whether you’re using a notebook, a laptop, or good old-fashioned flashcards, reviewing each line of your notes helps ensure that you hit all the right information you reviewed in class and might even remind you of a few things you would have missed otherwise. It’s good to review notes shortly after class, and then again a few days later. This allows you to take a break between edits and come back to the information with a fresh perspective.
Occasionally, college professors will tell you the information that will (or won’t) be on an exam—listen to them! They’re sharing this information with you to save you time so you’re not studying the wrong information for hours, and you can focus on the important points. If you’re unsure about what to focus on while studying, send your professor a quick email to confirm or speak with him or her after class.
Keep Your Cool
Studying can be draining, so treat yourself for a little motivation. Buy a coffee from your favorite coffee shop or get some study snacks from the campus convenience store. You can also reward yourself by taking breaks for activities you enjoy, like walking, reading, or watching TV. Adding in a reward will give you something fun to work towards.
Continuing from the previous point, taking breaks is important. Breaks give you a boost of productivity, reset, and prevent burnout. It might seem like you need to use all the time you possibly can to study, back-to-back, but your brain will start to slow down if you don’t give it a chance to relax. Taking breaks can help you get the most out of your study time with the least amount of stress.
It might be easy to fall into a trap of stressing yourself out while you’re studying, but that will be counterintuitive in the big picture. You can control when you study and how you study to help prepare you for your exams. After that, you have to be confident and try your best to retain the information. Believing in yourself and trusting that you’ve got this can help you forget about the stress and focus on moving forward.
Check out these additional resources and study tips for college to help you succeed in your college planning and writing:
- How to write an essay about yourself
- Structuring an essay about your career goals
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About 1 in 5 u.s. teens who’ve heard of chatgpt have used it for schoolwork.
Roughly one-in-five teenagers who have heard of ChatGPT say they have used it to help them do their schoolwork, according to a new Pew Research Center survey of U.S. teens ages 13 to 17. With a majority of teens having heard of ChatGPT, that amounts to 13% of all U.S. teens who have used the generative artificial intelligence (AI) chatbot in their schoolwork.
Teens in higher grade levels are particularly likely to have used the chatbot to help them with schoolwork. About one-quarter of 11th and 12th graders who have heard of ChatGPT say they have done this. This share drops to 17% among 9th and 10th graders and 12% among 7th and 8th graders.
There is no significant difference between teen boys and girls who have used ChatGPT in this way.
The introduction of ChatGPT last year has led to much discussion about its role in schools , especially whether schools should integrate the new technology into the classroom or ban it .
Pew Research Center conducted this analysis to understand American teens’ use and understanding of ChatGPT in the school setting.
The Center conducted an online survey of 1,453 U.S. teens from Sept. 26 to Oct. 23, 2023, via Ipsos. Ipsos recruited the teens via their parents, who were part of its KnowledgePanel . The KnowledgePanel is a probability-based web panel recruited primarily through national, random sampling of residential addresses. The survey was weighted to be representative of U.S. teens ages 13 to 17 who live with their parents by age, gender, race and ethnicity, household income, and other categories.
This research was reviewed and approved by an external institutional review board (IRB), Advarra, an independent committee of experts specializing in helping to protect the rights of research participants.
Here are the questions used for this analysis , along with responses, and its methodology .
Teens’ awareness of ChatGPT
Overall, two-thirds of U.S. teens say they have heard of ChatGPT, including 23% who have heard a lot about it. But awareness varies by race and ethnicity, as well as by household income:
- 72% of White teens say they’ve heard at least a little about ChatGPT, compared with 63% of Hispanic teens and 56% of Black teens.
- 75% of teens living in households that make $75,000 or more annually have heard of ChatGPT. Much smaller shares in households with incomes between $30,000 and $74,999 (58%) and less than $30,000 (41%) say the same.
Teens who are more aware of ChatGPT are more likely to use it for schoolwork. Roughly a third of teens who have heard a lot about ChatGPT (36%) have used it for schoolwork, far higher than the 10% among those who have heard a little about it.
When do teens think it’s OK for students to use ChatGPT?
For teens, whether it is – or is not – acceptable for students to use ChatGPT depends on what it is being used for.
There is a fair amount of support for using the chatbot to explore a topic. Roughly seven-in-ten teens who have heard of ChatGPT say it’s acceptable to use when they are researching something new, while 13% say it is not acceptable.
However, there is much less support for using ChatGPT to do the work itself. Just one-in-five teens who have heard of ChatGPT say it’s acceptable to use it to write essays, while 57% say it is not acceptable. And 39% say it’s acceptable to use ChatGPT to solve math problems, while a similar share of teens (36%) say it’s not acceptable.
Some teens are uncertain about whether it’s acceptable to use ChatGPT for these tasks. Between 18% and 24% say they aren’t sure whether these are acceptable use cases for ChatGPT.
Those who have heard a lot about ChatGPT are more likely than those who have only heard a little about it to say it’s acceptable to use the chatbot to research topics, solve math problems and write essays. For instance, 54% of teens who have heard a lot about ChatGPT say it’s acceptable to use it to solve math problems, compared with 32% among those who have heard a little about it.
Note: Here are the questions used for this analysis , along with responses, and its methodology .
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About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .
Five yale students awarded 2024 rhodes scholarships.
Madison I. Hahamy, Iman Iftikhar, Victoria Kipngetich, Nyasha Mukonoweshuro, Jacqueline N. Testamark
Four Yale College seniors who have both excelled academically and demonstrated a commitment to social impact, and another scholar who is currently studying at Yale as a 2023-24 Henry Fellow, are among 62 students from across the world to receive 2024 Rhodes Scholarships, one of the world’s oldest and most prestigious academic awards for graduate study. The scholarships provide all expenses for two to three years of study at the University of Oxford.
Madison I. Hahamy, from Lake Forest, Illinois, and Jacqueline N. Testamark, from Levittown, New York, are among 32 American recipients, the Rhodes Trust announced on Nov. 11, and Iman Iftikhar, from Lahore, Pakistan, and Victoria Kipngetich, from Nairobi, Kenya, are among 30 international recipients. Nyasha Mukonoweshuro, from Zimbabwe, who came to Yale as a 2023-24 Henry Fellow after graduating from Loughborough University in England, also received a Rhodes Scholarship.
All of the scholars will begin graduate study, across a range of disciplines, at Oxford beginning in October 2024.
Created in 1902 by the will of Cecil Rhodes, the Rhodes scholarships are provided in partnership with the Second Century Founders, John McCall MacBain O.C., the Atlantic Philanthropies, and many other benefactors. Applicants are chosen on the basis of the criteria set down by Rhodes. While these criteria include “first and fundamentally, academic excellence,” this is only a “threshold condition,” said Ramona L. Doyle, American Secretary of the Rhodes Trust, in announcing the 32 U.S. winners.
“ A Rhodes Scholar should also have great ambition for social impact, and an uncommon ability to work with others to achieve one’s goals,” she said. “They should be committed to make a strong difference for good in the world, be concerned for the welfare of others, and be acutely conscious of inequities.”
“ They inspire us already with their accomplishments, but even more by their values-based leadership and selfless ambitions to improve their communities and the world,” Doyle added.
Biographies of Yale’s 2024 Rhodes scholars follow:
Madison I. Hahamy
Madison I. Hahamy is majoring in English. Since high school, she has been a journalist, and now contributes to investigative journalism in a variety of news outlets. She is an intern at NBC News Investigations and was previously a senior editor at The New Journal at Yale. She received the John Hersey Prize in journalism for her engagement with moral and social issues, responsible reportage, and craftsmanship. In her spare time, she is a singer in a Jewish a cappella group. She has a twin brother, Garrett. Madison will pursue a Master of Science (M.Sc.) degree in refugee and forced migration studies at Oxford.
Iman Iftikhar is majoring in history and philosophy at Yale. Her historical scholarship is focused on archiving the untold histories of marginalized, resistance movements in colonial and postcolonial South Asia, including the Pashtun Tahaffuz Movement (Pakistan) for her undergraduate thesis. She is also interested in ethics and conflict theory and is working on putting Kant, Freud, Butler, and Fanon in conversation on the ethics of violence for her senior essay in philosophy. At Yale, she has been involved with the Yale Debate Association, served on the Women's Center board, and chaired the Reproductive Justice Action League. She has also written for publications, edited for online journals, recorded podcasts, interned in foreign policy, and worked at Artspace New Haven. She speaks five languages including English, Urdu, Punjabi, German, and Arabic, and is looking to add Farsi and Pashto to the list. At Oxford Iman will pursue a Master of Studies (M.St.) degree in intellectual history and an M.Sc. in South Asian Studies.
Victoria Kipngetich, who is majoring in global affairs, is passionate about agency in Africa’s diplomatic relations and the democratization of foreign policy in the Kenyan context. Relating to these interests, she has interned at the Kenya Mission to the United Nations, where she negotiated resolutions in the UN General Assembly and served as a speechwriter for the Kenyan ambassador to the UN. She most recently interned at the Council on Foreign Relations, working to enhance U.S. policymakers’ understanding of political developments in East and Central Africa. She is fluent in Swahili and French and has studied Italian at Yale. Through the Brady-Johnson Program in Grand Strategy, she has conducted research on the diplomatic strategies employed by Kenyan policymakers in response to emerging great power competition dynamics on the African continent. She intends to pursue this research further through a policy-prescriptive lens at Oxford, reading for an M.Sc. in global governance and diplomacy.
Jacqueline N. Testamark
Jacqueline N. Testamark is majoring in classical civilizations and history, where much of her academic work has centered on examining minority histories in classical art and literature. She has worked as a field archaeologist in Rome with the Gabii Project, contributed to a recent gallery exhibition and associated catalogue with Nicholas Hall, and is a provenance researcher for the Yale University Art Gallery. She co-organizes the Anti-Racism Reading Group for the Department of Classics, developing a curriculum of readings centering race and identity in classical texts and modern scholarship, and last year served as the head delegate of the Model United Nations Team. In her free time, she enjoys performing with her a cappella group, Out of the Blue. At Oxford, she will pursue an M.St. in history of art and visual culture.
Nyasha Mukonoweshuro this year graduated from Loughborough University with first class honors, the highest grade an undergraduate student can achieve in the UK. As the recipient of a Henry Fellowship, which supports one year of postgraduate study at Yale, she is now taking classes in Yale’s Department of Political Science and Yale Law School. As an undergraduate she explored the value of narratives in reconciliation following violent conflict in post-colonial contexts. She is interested in studying African epistemic agency in approaches towards transitional justice, focusing especially on the role of typically marginalized actors such as women and young people. Stemming from her experiences as a former internationally competitive swimmer, she is also passionate about supporting marginalized communities and creating equitable environments. As an undergraduate student, she was recognized as the “Diversity Advocate of the Year” and received the vice chancellor’s gold award for her efforts to strengthen the university’s racial equity strategy. She hopes to pursue a career in the legal sector, particularly at the intersection of human rights and international law. At Oxford, she hopes to read for a B.A in jurisprudence with senior status.
EDITOR'S NOTE: This story was updated on Nov. 14 to include a fifth 2024 Rhodes recipient now studying at Yale.
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