How Gender Reassignment Surgery Works
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In 1952 a 27-year-old, former WWII-era GI from New York named George Jorgensen traveled to Denmark, and returned to the U.S. as Christine Jorgensen. Jorgensen, who had described herself as a woman trapped in a man's body, was one of the first to transition from the male to female gender through a process involving hormone therapy and surgical procedures [source: Hadjimatheou ]. In time, she became a trailblazer in seeking those gender reassignment surgeries as these procedures, now known as gender realignment (reconstruction, affirmation or confirmation) surgeries, wouldn't begin in the U.S. until 1966 [source: Wexler ].
Gender identity struggles usually begin in early childhood but descriptions of feeling like a man trapped inside a woman's body, or vice versa, have been identified in and reported by people of all ages. A person living with this an internal conflict may develop anxiety and depression, and go on to be diagnosed with gender dysphoria, formally known as gender identity disorder (GID). Gender dysphoria is a mental health condition that can arise when a person lives with ongoing feelings of being physically incongruous with his or her birth sex — and medical intervention may be beneficial. Identifying as transgender, itself, is considered by scientists to be, at least in part, biological and not a mental illness [source: HRF ].
Being transgender also isn't about anatomy or sexual orientation; it's about internally identifying with a gender status — which could be masculine, feminine, agender or gender fluid — that is different than the one culturally assigned to you based upon your physical characteristics. While some people may never publicly acknowledge their transgender status, others may decide to live as their desired gender — and that could mean changing how they express their gender through transitioning.
Transitioning is often two-fold: a social transition, such as new clothing, a new name and new pronouns; and a medical transition, with treatments such as hormone therapy and surgical procedures. Depending on the needs and wants of each individual, transitioning may include both social and medical transitions; just one of the two; or for those who eschew gender completely, neither.
Diagnosing Gender Dysphoria
Gender affirmation surgery.
Gender transition is a process unique to each individual, and for those who do choose to affirm their gender with a medical transition, the path often consists of counseling and a diagnosis of gender dysphoria, hormone therapy and real-life experience before genital-changing surgeries are performed. Not all transgender people need — or want — these therapies; and, not all transgender people undergo surgery. Those who do choose to medically transition may select a number of procedures, or focus on just "top," "bottom" or cosmetic surgeries. The collection of procedures are also commonly called gender reassignment or — and the process begins long before the procedures do.
It begins with psychotherapy; in addition to providing counsel, mental health professionals assess a person's readiness for hormone therapy and surgery. To become a candidate for gender reassignment surgery, a person must first be diagnosed with gender dysphoria, as defined by the American Psychological Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), a common language and standards protocol manual for the classification of mental disorders. Gender dysphoria was previously known as gender identity disorder (GID) and broken into a handful of classifications (such as childhood and adulthood) in the DSM-4. The revision was made not only to help ensure access to care while attempting to reduce the stigma associated with gender identity struggles, but it also removed the concomitance between transgender feelings and mental illness.
Having persistent feelings — for at least six months — that a person's birth sex doesn't align with his or her gender identity isn't considered a behavioral health issue. To be diagnosed with gender dysphoria, adults and adolescents must also exhibit at least two other conditions, including [source: APA ]:
- An outward expression of gender that differs from what society expects
- The desire to be a different gender
- The wish to be treated as a different gender
- The desire to get rid of the primary and secondary sex characteristics of the "wrong" gender
- The wish to have the sexual characteristics of a different gender
- The belief their gender reactions are of a different gender
The desire for gender change cannot be a symptom of another disorder or a chromosomal abnormality. Additionally, these gender identity issues must cause distress, personally, socially, professionally or in any other manner [source: APA ].
After counseling, evaluation and diagnosis, patients don't immediately schedule a vaginectomy (removal of the vagina), or penectomy (removal of the penis). Those who choose gender affirmation surgery will need letters of recommendation from counselors, psychiatrists, psychologists, sexologists and/or therapists prior to major gender reconstructive surgery.
Doctors normally recommend hormone therapy to alter secondary sex characteristics to the desired gender before surgery. Other than surgeries to reconstruct internal and external genitalia (and not counting anything considered a cosmetic procedure), most physical changes are managed with hormone therapy prescribed by an endocrinologist to suppress certain characteristics (such as distribution of body hair) or enhance certain others (such as breast growth). Hormone therapy may continue for a few years (it takes at least two years to achieve maximum results), and may be concurrent with what's known as the Real-Life Experience (RLE), a year dedicated to living openly as one's desired gender, and intended to help adjust — socially, physically and emotionally — to making these significant changes in gender expression [source: WPATH ].
It's difficult to know for certain what the actual numbers are, but the Williams Institute estimates that that about 0.3 percent of the general U.S. population identifies as transgender, although not all of those 1.5 million people will desire or undergo gender affirmation surgery [sources: Gates , Steinmetz ]. Each year between 100 and 500 gender reconstruction surgical procedures are done in the U.S. to treat gender dysphoria. The United States is not a major player in gender dysphoria treatment; estimates range that up to 2,500 people worldwide affirm their gender through surgery every year — and Thailand has long been considered the premiere destination for gender surgeries [sources: Toro , Encyclopedia of Surgery ].
Gender affirmation surgery is performed under the guidelines of World Professional Association for Transgender Health's (WPATH) globally accepted Standards of Care for Gender Identity Disorders (SOC). The types of surgeries to be conducted are decided by the patient's desire and comfort level, as well as finances. Not every patient will want or need the same surgeries, and the process is tailored for each individual. Certain procedures are considered medically necessary to treat gender dysphoria, while other common gender confirmation surgeries such as rhinoplasty and brow lifts are considered cosmetic; for some this new outward appearance may hold more significance than the reconstruction of internal and external genitalia.
Surgeries for trans men (or those assigned female at birth (AFAB)) include:
- Bilateral mastectomy;
- Complete hysterectomy
- Reconstruction of the genitalia with a metoidioplasty (a procedure that allows a surgeon to construct a phallus from the clitoris)
- Ring metoidioplasty (to lengthen the urethra)
- Scrotoplasty (the construction of a scrotum)
- Vaginectomy (to close of the vaginal canal)
- Phalloplasty (the construction of the penis)
A penile implant (a prosthetic otherwise used to treat erectile dysfunction) and testicular implants may also be added to the reconstructed penis and testes. Although the mean length of a reconstructed penis is roughly 2 inches (5 centimeters), 80 percent of trans men in one study reported they were able to engage in sexual intercourse, and most experienced orgasms [source: Harrison ].
Trans women, or those assigned male at birth (AMAB), a group larger in number than trans men, may begin their physical transformation with breast augmentation (implants), as well as with cosmetic surgeries to feminize the face and body, such as facial feminization surgery (FFS) , and gluteal, hip and thigh implants before undergoing genital reconstruction. Surgeries to create female genitalia include:
- Clitoroplasty (the construction of a clitoris)
- Labiaplasty (the creation of a labia from scrotum skin)
- Orchiectomy (testicle removal)
- Prostatectomy (the removal of prostate)
- Urethroplasty (the reconstruction of the urethra)
- Vaginoplasty (the creation of the vaginal canal, made from penile tissue or a colon graft)
- Penectomy (removal of the penis) is usually done concurrently with vaginoplasty, and a clitoral hood is typically constructed from the glans penis.
In the U.S. surgical costs in 2015 may run anywhere from about $25,000 for male-to-female transitions and upwards of $100,000 or more for female-to-male transitions, although typical costs fall between $7,000 and $50,000 [sources: Leitsinger , AP ]. Transgender Brits pay about 10,000 pounds ($15,000) [source: Telegraph ]. And for an extra $8,000, patients transitioning from female to male in Thailand can, for example, upgrade from a 1 inch (2.5 centimeter) penis to one with a few more inches [source: Ehrlich ].
Transgender people who have undergone gender affirmation surgeries are, in almost all cases, happy they did so. In the U.K., for instance, only 2 percent of people who've undergone gender reconstructive surgeries report regretting their physical transformation, compared to 65 percent of cisgender (non-transgender) people who report regretting their plastic surgery choices [source: Tannehill ]. And in the U.S. less than 1 percent of trans women regret their genital reconstruction, a percentage that's been decreasing alongside the risk of developing long-term complications [source: Tannehill ]. More than 80 percent of patients report long-term satisfaction despite (treatable) complications such as vaginal hair growth (a 29 percent prevalence among trans females) and urinary problems (almost the same, at 27 percent) [source: Goddard ]. The rate of regret for trans men is difficult to estimate, as they are smaller in number than trans women [sources: Jarolím , Tannehill ].
Sure, there's the case of Charles Kane, who famously transitioned from a man to a woman in 1997, and then back again. After living as Samantha Kane for seven years, Charles decided he would never pass as a "real woman," neither to himself or to the public, and felt hormone therapy altered his brain into making the original decision [source: Scutti ]. But, Kane is a rarity.
Lots More Information
Author's note: how gender reassignment works.
The terminology surrounding gender identity, expression and affirmation has changed a lot since I first wrote about gender dysphoria, then called gender identity disorder, and the ins and outs of, what was then called gender reassignment surgery. The first thing I noticed 8 years later is that there is a lot more labeling. For instance: A biologically born man who identifies as a woman may be known as an 'affirmed' or 'confirmed' woman, 'transgender' woman, or you may also hear the term 'trans woman' — all in reference to the same woman. For some, 'transsexual' continues to be used. And then there's also the acronyms, such as MTF (or M2F), which stands for male-to-female, and AMAB (or DMAB), indicating 'assigned male at birth' (and 'designated male at birth'). I'm sure I'm overlooking some, too. And it's a similar list for someone assigned female at birth who identifies as a man (AFAB). What seems to be left out, though is the most obvious: male and female, just as those who are cisgender (a term used for non-trans people). (Unless, of course, we're talking about a person whose identity lies somewhere along a spectrum of gender, who may prefer to describe themselves as neither male nor female, but gender fluid.)
Related HowStuffWorks Articles
- How Gender Identity Disorder Works
- Is gender just a matter of choice?
- Stages of Gender Reassignment
- How fluid is gender?
- What is transgender voice therapy?
More Great Links
- National Center for Transgender Equality
- The Williams Institute
- World Professional Organization for Tansgender Health (WPATH)
- Aetna. "Clinical Policy Bulletin: Gender Reassignment Surgery." Sept. 19, 2014. (April 12, 2015) http://www.aetna.com/cpb/medical/data/600_699/0615.html
- American Medical Student Association (AMSA). "Transgender Health Resources." (April 12, 2015) http://www.amsa.org/AMSA/Homepage/About/Committees/GenderandSexuality/TransgenderHealthCare.aspx
- American Psychological Association (APA). "Definition of Terms: Sex, Gender, Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation." Excerpt from: The Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients. Feb. 18, 2011. (April 12, 2015) http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/sexuality-definitions.pdf
- Bilefsky, Dan. "Serbia Becomes a Hub for Sex-Change Surgery." The New York Times. July 23, 2012. (April 12, 2015) http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/24/world/europe/serbia-becomes-a-hub-for-sex-change-surgery.html
- Dewey, Caitlin. "Confused by Facebook's new gender options? Here's what they mean." The Washington Post. Feb. 14, 2014. (April 12, 2015) http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/style-blog/wp/2014/02/14/confused-by-facebooks-new-gender-options-heres-what-they-mean/
- Ehrlich, Richard s. "Everything you always wanted to know about sex... changes." CNN. Feb. 24, 2010. (April 12, 2015) http://travel.cnn.com/bangkok/play/everything-youve-ever-wanted-know-about-sex-changes-379486
- Gates, Gary J. "How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender?" April 2011. (July 29, 2015) http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Gates-How-Many-People-LGBT-Apr-2011.pdf
- Goddard, Jonathan C. "Feminizing genitoplasty in adult transsexuals: early and long-term surgical results." BJU International. Vol. 100, no. 3. Pages 607-613. July 2007. (April 12, 2015) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2007.07017.x/pdf
- Goldberg, Joseph. "When You Don't Feel At Home With Your Gender." WebMD. Sept. 24, 2014. (April 12, 2015) http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/gender-dysphoria
- Hadjimatheou, Chloe. "Christine Jorgensen: 60 years of sex change ops." BBC News. Nov. 30, 2012. (April 12, 2015) http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20544095
- Harrison, Laird. "Sex-Change Operations Mostly Successful." Medscape. May 20, 2013. (April 12, 2015) http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/804432
- HealthResearchFunding.og (HRF). "14 Unique Gender Identity Disorder Statistics." July 28, 2014. (April 12, 2015) http://healthresearchfunding.org/gender-identity-disorder-statistics/
- International Foundation for Gender Education (IFGE). "APA DSM-5 Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders: 302.85 Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents or Adults." (April 12, 2015) http://www.ifge.org/302.85_Gender_Identity_Disorder_in_Adolescents_or_Adults
- Jarolím, L. "Gender reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism: A retrospective 3-month follow-up study with anatomical remarks." The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Vol. 6, no. 6. Pages 1635-1644. June 2009. (April 12, 2015) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19473463
- Kourkounis, Erin. "Tampa transgender teen living life of transition." The Tampa Tribune. (April 12, 2015) http://tbo.com/news/education/tampa-transgender-teen-living-life-of-transition-20150412/
- Lallanilla, Marc. "Gender Reassignment Surgery: How Does It Work?" Huffington Post - HuffPost Healthy Living. Oct. 23, 2015. (April 12, 2015) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/23/gender-reassignment-surgery-manning-bradley-chelsea_n_3804247.html
- Leitsinger, Miranda. "Sex Reassignment Surgery at 74: Medicare Win Opens Door for Transgender Seniors." NBC News. Jan. 3, 2015. (April 12, 2015) http://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/sex-reassignment-surgery-74-medicare-win-opens-door-transgender-seniors-n276986
- McGinn, Christine. "Services." Gender Wellness Center Papillon. 2010. (April 12, 2015) http://www.drchristinemcginn.com/services/
- Monstrey, Stan J. "Sex Reassignment Surgery in the Female-to-Male Transsexual." Seminars in Plastic Surgery. Vol. 25, no. 3. Pages 229-244. August 2011. (April 12, 2015) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3312187/
- Nguyen, Tuan A. "Male-To-Female Procedures." Lake Oswego Plastic Surgery. (April 12, 2015) http://www.lakeoswegoplasticsurgery.com/grs/grs_procedures_mtf.html
- Scutti, Susan. "Becoming Transsexual: Getting The Facts On Sex Reassignment Surgery." Medical Daily. Nov. 6, 2014. (April 12, 2015) http://www.medicaldaily.com/becoming-transsexual-getting-facts-sex-reassignment-surgery-309584
- Selvaggi, G. "Genital sensitivity after sex reassignment surgery in transsexual patients." Annals of Plastic Surgery. Vol. 58, no. 4. Pages 427-433. April 2007. (April 12, 2015) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17413887
- Tannehill, Brynn."Myths About Transition Regrets." Huffington Post - HuffPost Gay Voices. Jan. 18, 2015. (April 12, 2015) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/brynn-tannehill/myths-about-transition-regrets_b_6160626.html
- The Classroom. "Gender Identity: Trans Keywords." (April 12, 2015) http://the-classroom.org.uk/lgbt-101/gender-identity/keywords-gender-identity/
- The Telegraph. "Number of NHS sex change operations triples." April 21, 2010. (April 12, 2015) http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/7613567/Number-of-NHS-sex-change-operations-triples.html
- Toro, Ross. "How Gender Reassignment Surgery Works (Infographic)." LiveScience. Aug. 26, 2013. (April 12, 2015) http://www.livescience.com/39170-how-gender-reassignment-surgery-works-infographic.html
- University of California San Francisco - Center of Excellence for Transgender Health. "Transgender Health Learning Center: Surgical Options." (April 12, 2015) http://transhealth.ucsf.edu/trans?page=protocol-surgery
- University of Miami - Miller School of Medicine. "Plastic Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery: Transgender Reassignment." 2015. (April 12, 2015) http://surgery.med.miami.edu/plastic-and-reconstructive/transgender-reassignment-surgery
- University of Michigan Health System. "Transgender Services: Gender Affirming Surgery." (April 12, 2015) http://www.uofmhealth.org/medical-services/gender-affirming-surgery
- USA Today. "Medicare ban on sex reassignment surgery lifted." May 30, 2014. (April 12, 2015) http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/05/30/medicare-sex-reassignment/9789675/
- Wexler, Laura. "Identity Crisis." Jan. 2007. (June 29, 2015) http://www.baltimorestyle.com/index.php/style/features_article/fe_sexchange_jf07
- World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH). "Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People." Version 7. 2012. (April 20, 2015) http://www.wpath.org/uploaded_files/140/files/Standards%20of%20Care,%20V7%20Full%20Book.pdf
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The Ultimate Guide to Gender Reassignment in Thailand
Last fact-checked: 4 January 2023
Gender reassignment surgery (also known as sex-change, gender affirmation, or sex reassignment surgery (SRS)) refers to medical procedures sought by transgender or non-binary individuals which align one’s physical appearance or functional ability with the gender to which they identify.
While such surgeries have become increasingly more commonplace around the world thanks to improved techniques and greater awareness of this often-stigmatized issue, the cost of gender reassignment surgery still poses a major stumbling block.
When traveling to Thailand, however, patients save between 60% to 70% on the cost of their surgery (which can total more than $40,000 in countries like Australia, the UK and the US), as well as skip the long waiting lists often found in the West.
Use Medical Departures to find a world-class surgeon in Thailand, one of the world’s leading destinations for gender reassignment.
What Is the Cost of Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand?
For many patients, the cost of undergoing gender reassignment surgery in their own country can be prohibitive. By choosing to undergo treatment in Thailand, treatment becomes a much more realistic and attainable dream.
The overall cost will depend upon the extent of the work to be carried out; as a general guide:
A male-to-female sex change (genital reconstruction only) operation in the US could cost as much as USD $25,000 - 30,000 (AUD 36,000 - 44,000)
In Thailand, the same medical treatment at an established, well-regarded facility costs around USD $7,000 - $12,000.
For patients seeking to add breast augmentation (implants), voice feminisation surgery, and Adam’s apple reduction (tracheal shave), prices may often exceed $50,000 in the West.
In Thailand, these surgeries generally cost around two-thirds less than in the US, UK or Australia. Thus, for a package that includes genital reconstruction, breast augmentation and voice feminisation surgery, the total cost is estimated to be USD $15,000 - $25,000.
See the table below comparing SRS prices in Thailand with other countries:
Is Gender Reassignment Surgery Covered by Insurance Companies for Healthcare Providers at Home?
Finding coverage for any transition-related surgery can be a long and challenging process for those who would normally rely on private health insurance.
Many states in the US, for example, have laws that explicitly exclude such coverage, while those companies that do offer financial help typically require patients to endure prolonged hormone therapy, show proof of “ persistent and well-documented gender dysphoria ” over a set period of time and present numerous referral letters from doctors, mental health professionals and even family.
Why Choose Thailand for Gender Reassignment Surgery?
At its peak, Thailand welcomes more than 40 million international visitors a year. And while most tourists are drawn thanks to the allure of the country’s beautiful beaches, ancient temples, sprawling jungles, luxury shopping and exotic cuisine, many others travel for the sole reason of taking advantage of affordable plastic surgery prices–which includes SRS–with treatment carried out in state-of-the-art clinics and hospitals by highly skilled, specialist doctors who are often recognised for their expertise at a global level.
Below, we sum up the reasons to choose Thailand for SRS and related sex affirmation treatments.
Quality of Care: The continued growth of medical tourism in Thailand has seen the emergence of a wealth of world-class facilities, staffed by internationally-trained medical experts.
From modern beauty centers focusing on only select treatments to specialized departments within larger private hospitals, medical travelers now enjoy a healthy choice of well-established facilities that have all been fully verified by Medical Departures. In fact, Thailand is home to the most Joint Commission International (JCI) hospitals in the region and is the gold standard of international medical accreditation.
Some of the Gender Reassignment Specialists: It is also worth noting here that Thailand has been a pioneering country for gender reassignment ; the first surgery was carried out here in 1975. Today, around 90% of the patients undergoing surgery in Thailand are welcomed from abroad.
Scroll down to examine some of our top-rated SRS clinics and hospitals and Thailand, with each dedicated listing page providing more information about the facility, as well as photos, prices, doctor profiles and patient reviews.
Prices: As we have looked at above, patients can typically look forward to saving at least 50% on the price of an SRS procedure in Thailand; many indeed find that the total cost is closer to 70% less than private care in the US, UK and Australia–as these countries will often not include other essential expenses in initial price quotes, such as anesthesia, in-patient care, medication and even consultation fees.
To find out how much you can save in Thailand on sex reassignment surgery, as well as how you can benefit from our Best Price Guarantee , you can connect with our Customer Care Team any time of the day or night.
How to Find the Best Gender Reassignment Surgeons in Thailand
The Medical Departures team takes the necessary time to research the finest hospitals and doctors available, performing background checks to confirm doctor qualifications and verifying associations with professional medical organizations, such as the International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ISAPS) .
How Do We Verify Clinics?
Our website contains exclusive listings of reputable clinics and surgeons available throughout Thailand. We have performed site visits to ensure that equipment and facilities are of the highest standard, and we conduct regular reviews with patients that have attended our clinics to ensure that they have received first-class service.
Considering this is a highly-specialized procedure, we make sure that every surgeon performing the procedure is a member of professional organizations both in Thailand and abroad. These can be found listed in the ‘Doctors’ section on each of our clinic/hospital listings, and include:
The Thai Medical Council
Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons of Thailand
Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons of Thailand
International Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Royal College of Surgeons of Thailand
Medical Association of Thailand
We also ensure that surgeons have undertaken rigorous training in the field, such as completing courses provided by the Global Education Institute (GEI) that follow globally-recognised guidelines, standards of care and best practices as set out by the WPATH World Professional Association for Transgender Health .
Best Sex Change Surgeons in Thailand
One of the top facilities in the country for various gender-affirming procedures is the highly-rated Kamol Hospital . Located in Bangkok, Dr. Kamol is globally recognized as one of the most experienced surgeons in the world for gender reassignment. A large team of surgeons is led by Dr. Kamol Pansritum, a world-renowned specialist in plastic surgery who has performed more than 10,000 cases of sex reassignment and facial feminization surgeries.
Kamol Hospital's specialists consist of gynecologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, dermatologists, anesthesiologists and other clinical professionals who work as a team to provide the utmost care in the Thai capital.
For more options, take a look at three more trusted facilities in Thailand that offer sex-change surgery to international patients:
Asia Cosmetic Hospital (Bangkok)
Yanhee Hospital Health & Beauty (Bangkok)
MAXi Cosmetic Surgery (Bangkok)
> All Clinics and Hospitals for Gender Reassignment in Thailand
> Clinics and Hospitals for Gender Reassignment in Bangkok
About Gender Reassignment Surgery
Gender reassignment surgery (or “sex reassignment surgery” (SRS)) is the term given to the medical procedure (or procedures) that are utilized to alter the function and physical appearance of a patient’s existing sexual characteristics.
Sometimes referred to as Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS), the treatment is designed to provide the patient with the physical appearance of their identified gender. The process is also known as sex realignment surgery, gender confirmation surgery or genital reconstruction surgery.
In Brief: What Surgical Procedures Can Gender Reassignment Entail?
There are numerous procedures that can fall under the gender reassignment umbrella, and these surgeries differ between trans men (female to male) and trans women (male to female). The main genital reconstruction procedures (m2f / f2m), are:
For trans men, genital reconstruction usually involves the construction of a penis through either a metoidioplasty or a phalloplasty.
For trans women, the surgical construction of a vagina usually entails a penile inversion or a process known as the sigmoid colon neovagina technique.
For both trans men and trans women, any genital reconstruction surgery will usually involve other procedures, such as:
Other Gender-Affirming Procedures & Plastic Surgery
“Top” surgery, to masculinise the chest
Facial feminization procedures, such as chin augmentation and rhinoplasty
Reduction thyroid chondroplasty (tracheal cartilage shave)
Voice feminisation surgery
Tracheal shave (Adam’s apple reduction)
What Does Male-to-Female Gender Reassignment Surgery Entail?
Ultimately, male-to-female surgery entails reshaping the male genitals into a form that has the appearance of and, where possible, the function of female genitalia. Before any surgery can take place, patients are usually required to undergo hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and, possibly, facial hair removal. Other procedures that a patient may decide to undertake include breast augmentation and facial feminization surgery.
Genital surgery, or vaginoplasty, involves the removal of the testicles before the skin and foreskin of the penis are inverted, keeping the blood and nerve supplies intact to retain sensitivity. A section of the glans penis can also be used to create a clitoris that is fully supplied with nerve endings.
Once this procedure is complete, further surgery (known as labiaplasty) is usually undertaken. This is usually carried out once the surrounding tissues, nerves and blood supply have recovered from the vaginoplasty and is designed to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the newly-created outer vulva.
Apart from genital surgery, patients may opt for other procedures to enhance the overall results. These can include:
Breast augmentation–otherwise known as breast enlargement, can be utilized if hormone therapy fails to yield the desired results (normally with the use of implants)
Facial feminization surgery–a range of cosmetic surgeries designed to modify bone or cartilage structures in areas such as the cheeks, nose, forehead, brow and jaw to give a more feminine appearance
Voice feminization surgery–called glottoplasty, this procedure is used to alter the range or pitch of the patient's vocal cords
Tracheal shave–the reduction of cartilage in the throat to reduce the size of the Adam's apple, giving a more feminine appearance
What Does Female-to-Male Gender Reassignment Surgery Entail?
Unlike the male-to-female procedure, many trans men considering female-to-male surgery do not always undergo genital reassignment surgery.
Specialists usually place more focus on altering the existing physical female anatomical traits to conform to a more masculine appearance. However, it is usual for a patient to undergo hormone treatment using testosterone before any gender reassignment surgery takes place.
Procedures usually include having the internal female sex organs removed (hysterectomy), undergoing a bilateral mastectomy (breast removal) and attaining a more typically male shape to the chest through chest contouring techniques:
Mastectomy–sometimes referred to as "top surgery," this involves the removal of the breasts, repositioning of the nipples, and subsequent reshaping of the chest to give a more masculine, contoured appearance.
Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: a hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus, whilst a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is the removal of both ovaries and fallopian tubes. For some trans men, this is undertaken to alleviate the discomfort of having female internal reproductive organs, but for many, it is done to reduce the risk of cancer.
Metoidioplasty and phalloplasty–these are genital reconstructive procedures (GRT) used to construct a new penis, either by enlarging the clitoris with androgenic hormones (metoidioplasty) or through using tissue grafts from other parts of the body in conjunction with an erectile prosthetic.
Risks and Complications
As with any other surgical procedure, sex change surgery comes with a set of potential complications, although risk factors can be mitigated by choosing a trusted surgeon (who will be working with an experienced anesthesiologist) as well as following the correct pre-surgical protocols.
Postoperative care is just as important as preoperative care: events such as genitalia swelling, bleeding, nerve damage, pain, inability to walk and difficulties with urination are some of the most reported complications in regard to sex change surgery.
Your surgeon will thoroughly explain any risks associated with surgery and anesthesia during an initial consultation.
For more information, read these safety considerations regarding transfeminine bottom surgery provided by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.
Where to Go in Thailand for SRS
The first and most-traveled destination in Thailand for sex reassignment surgery is the capital, Bangkok.
Home to the best SRS specialists in the country, sex-change surgery—or at least the concept of it—is fairly commonplace here in this sprawling megacity and does not carry the same negative stigma that it can in many parts of the US, Australia and Europe.
Bangkok is one of the world’s leading medical tourist destinations and also one of the world's most popular spots in Asia for families, couples and solo backpackers looking for an exotic getaway. Before or after your surgery, you will discover a long list of attractions and activities to enjoy. From food, shopping and thriving nightlife districts to taking in the sights and culture of this temple-packed city – you’ll find this fascinating city provides endless opportunities for enjoying Thai hospitality.
Bangkok’s attractions are varied –from dazzling temples and floating markets to designer shopping malls and effervescent nightlife–where you can eat some devilishly delicious street food on the cheap, or indulge in a high-end dining experience at one of the city’s glitzy rooftop restaurants. Bangkok has everything a modern city should have while retaining the allure and uniqueness of the old city.
> Read More: Ultimate Guide to Doctors in Bangkok
Another destination to consider for gender affirmation surgery in Thailand is Phuket. As the country’s largest island province, Phuket offers the same modern infrastructure and amenities as Bangkok–plus the welcome addition of tropical, white-sand beaches that are synonymous with this southern region next to the Andaman Sea.
Although not offering the same wide choice as the capital, we can recommend the superb Phuket Plastic Surgery Institute , which works with a team of more than 10 plastic surgery specialists. These English-speaking doctors are highly experienced and have earned international recognition as leaders in their particular disciplines, which include sex reassignment procedures.
> Read More: Ultimate Guide to Doctors in Phuket
Other Destinations in Thailand
If you are planning to enjoy some downtime before surgery, Thailand has a wealth of other top locations to choose from. Check out these destination guides aimed at medical tourists visiting Northern Thailand (Chiang Mai) and Chonburi province (Pattaya city).
> Ultimate Guide to Doctors in Chiang Mai
> Ultimate Guide to Doctors in Pattaya
In certain cases, medical tourists in Thailand do travel to another location following surgery to complete their recovery. This is usually only permitted following a set number of days or even weeks of bed rest after being discharged from the hospital. Always consult your surgeon about any travel plans you may have and follow aftercare instructions carefully (such as not swimming, engaging in vigorous activity and avoiding the hot sun).
Sex Change FAQs
Q. How old do I need to be for sex change surgery in Thailand?
A. Anyone 20 years old and older is eligible for gender reassignment surgery in Thailand. A person aged between 18 and 20 must receive consent from an authorized guardian.
Q. Will I have to undergo hormone therapy before getting a sex change in Thailand?
A. Yes, hospitals will typically require patients to have undergone hormone therapy for at least one year; reach out to one of our representatives for more information before you book.
Q. Can different sex reassignment procedures be performed concurrently? A. Yes, a team of surgeons can perform certain procedures during the same session of surgery, such as penile inversion vaginoplasty combined with voice feminisation. Other reconstructive surgeries, such as breast/chin augmentation may need to be done separately.
Q. How long do I have to wait to see an SRS surgeon in Thailand?
A. Waiting times for any type of surgery in Thailand are generally much shorter than in the West; Medical Departures can facilitate an initial consultation in a matter of days, depending on the hospital/surgeon of choice.
Q. How long will I need to stay in Thailand to complete my sex change?
A. This will depend on the number and type of procedures to be performed; on average, inpatient length of stay is estimated to be between 5 - 14 days. Your doctor will advise how long you’ll need to stay in the country for recovery and post-surgery care.
Q. How much Is sex change surgery in Thailand?
A. SRS surgery in Thailand typically costs between $7,000 - $12,000 (penile inversion); other associated surgeries generally cost around one-third of prices in the West. You will want to confirm pricing and treatment plan with your chosen clinic(s).
How Do I Get Started?
Booking through Medical Departures maximizes your savings thanks to our Best Price Guarantee which ensures that you pay the lowest rate possible for your treatment. We can even help with additional medical insurance by putting you in touch with a number of independent insurance providers who can offer you preferential rates on their policies.
In Thailand, gender reassignment is affordable and delivers outstanding results. To find out how much you can save, get in touch with a member of our Customer Care Team now and start planning your life-changing surgery today.
How Thailand Became a Global Gender-Change Destination. Bloomberg. 17 October 2015. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2015-10-26/how-thailand-became-a-global-gender-change-destination
WPATH World Professional Association for Transgender Health. Website accessed: 28 November 2022. https://www.wpath.org/gei
International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Website accessed: 28 November 2022. https://www.isaps.org/
Joint Commission International. Website accessed: 28 November 2022. https://www.jointcommissioninternational.org/
Brazier, Yvette. What you need to know about breast augmentation. Medical News Today. 3 April 2017. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/263567.php
Vaginoplasty and Labiaplasty. WebMD. 19 April 2019. https://www.webmd.com/women/guide/vaginoplasty-and-labiaplasty-procedures
A, Brooke. Is Gender Reassignment Surgery Covered by Health Insurance? Mira. 23 August 2022 .https://www.talktomira.com/post/is-gender-reassignment-surgery-covered-by-health-insurance
Transfeminine Bottom Surgery. American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Website accessed: 28 November 2022. https://www.plasticsurgery.org/reconstructive-procedures/transfeminine-bottom-surgery/safety
- Home > Treatments > Gender Reassignment Surgery Cost in Thailand
Gender Reassignment Surgery Cost in Thailand
Cosmetic and plastic surgery.
Bangkok, Thailand, has been the unquestionable leader in the field of high-quality gender reassignment procedures for decades. Thai Medical provides you with the opportunity to realize your dreams by employing one of the world’s best SRS surgeons and cutting-edge surgical techniques. Thai SRS surgeons are considered one of the best in their expertise. Thailand offers a wide range of cosmetic and plastic surgery procedures to patients from all over the world, and Thai experts have performed many natural-looking sex Reassignment procedures in Thailand. People from Australia, the United Kingdom, France, the Middle East, America, and Brazil are looking for the best results at the lowest possible cost. Gender reassignment surgery in Thailand is significantly less expensive than in the United States, Europe, or other developed countries. Part of the success can be attributed to Thai hospitals’ use of cutting-edge medical equipment and knowledge. Aside from these advantages, one of the main reasons is its ability to provide affordable cosmetic and plastic surgery in Thailand while maintaining clinical standards.
What is Gender Reassignment Surgery?
Gender Reassignment Surgery is a surgical operation, or a set of surgeries, designed to change a transsexual person’s physical attributes and sexual preferences so that they more closely reflect those of their assigned gender. GRS Gender Reassignment Surgery in Mexico is also referred to by a number of other names, including Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) , Gender Confirmation Surgery (GCS) , and others.
Standards of Care, including psychological testing and a period of practical experience living in the preferred gender, have been developed by professional medical organizations and must be met before a person can choose to have reassignment surgery. Multiple methods are used in Gender Reassignment Surgery (GRS), which can be done on either males or females who are transitioning into the other gender.
Why is Thailand a Top Destination for Gender Reassignment Surgery?
Given that it has one of the most welcoming societies, Thailand is noted for being able to support a significant transgender community. International patients are increasingly coming to Thailand each year to have sex change surgery. Thailand is the Gender Reassignment Capital of the World due to its accessible healthcare, skilled and experienced surgeons, and accepting society toward gender identity.
Patients from all over the world choose Thailand’s top hospitals due to a number of extra benefits, including access to state-of-the-art facilities, the flexibility to combine vacation and leisure time with treatment, and the simplicity of acquiring a visa.
Thailand is recognized for providing a wide range of operations performed by medical specialists who were educated in Western countries. Additionally, a lot of doctors speak English well in order to deliver top-notch care.
Know More – Medical Tourism in Thailand
An Overview of Thailand’s Medical Benefits
- The price is quite affordable. In Thailand, healthcare is affordable, especially if your health insurance pays all or some of the costs.
- Beautiful lodging options can be found in Thailand near a number of tourist sites. It is the perfect place to unwind and recover from the following therapy.
- The tropical climate frequently quickens the healing process.
- English is a common language among Thailand medical personnel. As a result, you shouldn’t worry about a possible communication breakdown.
- Thailand is a travel destination that is fairly priced. You travel on plush airlines, and tickets are frequently very affordable.
- Thailand rarely has lineups, unlike many Western countries. Surgery scheduling is comparable to vacation planning. When it’s convenient for you, you receive care.
- The installation of crowns, teeth whitening, LASIK eye surgery, and the eradication of warts and moles are just a few of the more routine operations that can be done in Thailand in addition to more sophisticated ones.
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What are the Two Types of Gender Reassignment Surgery?
Below are the two types of GRS :
1. Feminization Surgeries (Male to Female):
- Vaginoplasty: In a vaginoplasty, existing genital or abdominal tissue is used to create a new neovagina or neovulva.
- Penile inversion: Penile inversion is a popular vaginoplasty method. The penis glands are turned into a clitoris, and the testicles and scrotum are removed.
- Bowel vaginoplasty: A typical vaginoplasty procedure is bowel vaginoplasty. Similar to penile inversion, vaginoplasty involves the removal of the testicles and scrotum, the clitoris-making of the glands, and the construction of the neovulva from the scrotum and urethra.
- Vulvoplasty : The clitoris, inner and outer labia, and the vaginal entrance are created externally during vulvoplasties by the surgeon using tissue from the penis. Patients must stay in the hospital for three days following a vulvoplasty.
- Orchiectomy: Testicles are surgically removed from the body during an orchiectomy. In comparison to vaginoplasty or vulvoplasty, it is much easier to execute and can be finished in under 20 minutes with a local anesthetic.
- Chest reconstruction: For transgender men to physically transition to their self-affirmed gender, this treatment is used. In this, the scarring is reduced, the nipple and areola are adjusted, and the chest wall is reshaped and reduced.
2. Masculinization Surgeries (Female to Male)
A person will receive testosterone replacement medication prior to having the gender-affirming surgery to change them from female to male.
- Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: The surgical removal of the uterus is known as a hysterectomy.
- Phalloplasty: By using a flap (transplant) from the patient’s arm, thigh, belly, or back, phalloplasty creates a neopenis.
- Metoidioplasty: The process of creating a new penis or neopenis is called a metoidioplasty. After the clitoris has grown larger due to hormone replacement therapy, metoidioplasty is carried out. To enable the urine to flow while standing, the neopenis is constructed through an expanded clitoris, either with or without urethral extension. During the procedure, the surgeon also removes the vagina.
- Penile Implants: When a neophallus needs to obtain a proper erection, phalloplasty surgery uses a penile implant. In order to cure erectile dysfunction in cisgender males and to perform gender reassignment surgery on transgender men, penile implants are used.
- Facial Masculinization: Racial masculinization modifies physical characteristics to produce a look that more closely matches desired gender identification.
You can accomplish this by: Options for surgery include chin, brow, upper lip, and nose restoration. Non-surgical alternatives include injections to change the chin and jawline.
Gender Reassignment Surgery Cost in Thailand?
A Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS) in Thailand costs around one-third less than one in the United States. Thailand ranks first in terms of affordable healthcare, gender-transition surgery specialists, and medical facilities. The cost of a Gender Reassignment Surgery in Thailand starts from USD 11000.
The entire cost of a Gender Reassignment Surgery in Thailand can vary depending on a number of criteria, such as:
- The price of treatment packages can depend on the hospital’s preference.
- Doctor’s competence and experience in the subject.
- The patient’s situation: The patient’s disease and whether additional modalities are required for comprehensive treatment.
- Duration of hospitalization and stay in the country.
- Need for post-operative care.
- Hospital room classification.
These are the main factors driving thousands of patients to Thailand from around the world for medical care.
How to Choose Hospital in Thailand for Gender Reassignment Surgery?
Hospitals in Thailand that treat patients are renowned for their warmth and attentiveness to their needs. These hospitals are home to some of Thailand’s top Cosmetic surgeons who are experts in their areas. For an international patient, selecting a good hospital for treatment might be challenging. It is a crucial choice that needs to be made while keeping a number of things in mind, such as:
- Quality certificates and accreditations
- Hospital and transportation facility location
- Team of doctors and surgeons
- Advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment
- International patient assistance
How can Medsurge India Help?
Medsurge India is a prestigious support system for patients looking for doctors, hospitals, and specialized treatments. We’ll find the most suitable medical options for you. Regarding your medical issues, our team will give you a list of certified, reputable, and trusted doctors and hospitals. Additionally, we offer a treatment strategy that fits your budget. Apart, we assist patients with obtaining travel authorizations, medical visas, and a multitude of other things.
The Most Important Frequently Asked Questions
Q: How do they perform male-to-female gender reassignment surgery?
A: Gender Confirmation Surgery The penis is turned inside out to form the inner walls of the vagina during a process known as “penile inversion.” The penis head is then used to make a clitoris. The urethra is shortened and repositioned, and the outer and inner labia are formed.
Q: What happens after gender reassignment surgery?
A: People who undergo male-to-female gender reassignment surgery keep their prostates. Following surgery, estrogen (a female hormone) stimulates breast development, widens the hips, inhibits facial hair growth, and slightly raises voice pitch.
Q: At what age can you change your gender?
A: While there are no laws requiring a person to be of a certain age to receive sex-change hormones or surgery, insurers have generally refused to cover minors, despite the fact that some doctors see benefits in treating children before puberty.
Q: Can phalloplasty help you get erect?
A: The end result is a penis that appears natural and may be capable of erections. Phalloplasty, when performed as part of transgender surgery, assists you in achieving your desired gender identity. Other advantages are dependent on the options you select: Radial forearm-free flaps produce excellent cosmetic results as well as improved sensation.
Q: Can gender surgery reverse?
A: Because these surgeries cannot be reversed, they are usually performed at the end of a long-term process that includes an accurate diagnosis of gender dysphoria, counseling about treatment options, and assisting the person in preparing for hormone treatment and surgery, if desired.
Q: Is it possible to choose a child’s gender?
A: The only true way to choose your baby’s sex is to use IVF with preimplantation genetic testing (PGT). IVF is a fertility treatment in which eggs are fertilized in a laboratory by sperm. When an egg is fertilized, it develops into an embryo.
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GENDER REASSIGNMENT SURGERY Overseas
Also commonly called Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS), this procedure helps individuals become the person they want to be by transitioning them into the gender they associate with. It is becoming a very common procedure with more and more individuals taking the next step in their transition. At the moment we offer male to female transition only.
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If you would like to obtain a personalised quote for Gender Reassignment Surgery Overseas, please refer to our Enquiry page.
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What you need to know
BEST CANDIDATES +
The best candidate for Gender Reassignment Surgery (GRS) is someone who is:
- unhappy with the gender they are and wish to become the gender they associate with
- fully aware that this is a permanent procedure
- aware of all of the steps involved
- aware of any legalities that are required in their country for changing their name, gender etc
Because this is significant, life-changing surgery, it is important that you are physically, mentally and emotionally ready. As with any cosmetic surgery procedure, it is imperative you speak to someone you trust, are happy in your life and are psychologically ready.
PREPARING FOR YOUR PROCEDURE +
It is important to discuss with your doctors and with us any:
- Medical conditions you have
- Any medication you are taking - prescription, herbal and non-prescription
Once you arrive at your destination you will have a physical evaluation with your surgeon, where you will discuss your goals and concerns and finalise the plan for surgery. At this examination your surgeon will determine the best procedure for you and explain it to you in detail, including any limitations. It is important that you head into surgery with realistic goals. It is during this examination that your surgeon may also make recommendations for other procedures.
In the lead-up to your surgery, it is important you do the following:
Stop smoking. Smoking can cause problems with circulation and increase the possibility of complications.
What does gender reassignment surgery include?
The process of sex reassignment surgery (SRS) is to help people transition into the gender they align themselves with. There are various procedures, some of which can be done at the same time and some that must be staggered for medical purposes. There is female to male transitioning, but we currently only offer male-to-female transitioning. The five common procedures Beautiful You Holidays offers are; Orchiectomy, Penectomy, Vaginoplasty, Facial Feminisation and Body Contouring (including breast augmentation).
At what age can you change your gender?
In New Zealand, the minimum age for considering gender reassignment surgery is currently adults over 18 years of age. Anyone under this minimum age is not legally entitled to undergo any of the procedures above, even with the consent of an adult.
Can you reverse gender reassignment surgery?
The decision to undergo SRS isn’t one to be taken lightly. We ensure candidates understand the steps and legalities involved, and that patients understand that this is a permanent procedure. In the extremely rare case that someone who has undergone gender reassignment surgery wants to reverse the surgery, please consult a doctor.
WHAT TO EXPECT +
There are several procedures involved with a male to female gender reassignment, some of which can be performed at the same time. How many procedures you have done at the same time will depend on your own wishes along with the recommendations of your surgeon.
Orchiectomy (removal of the testicles)
An orchiectomy is a quick procedure and is often performed as part of a more comprehensive reassignment process. It is imperative to understand that without testicles the male hormone testosterone will not be produced.
Penectomy (removal of the penis)
This procedure can be performed as a single procedure or as part of the gender reassignment process should you want to create female genitals. During the penectomy, the urethra will be shortened and redirected.
Vaginoplasty (creating a vagina)
A vaginoplasty is used to create a vagina and is often done by using the skin of the penis and turning it inside out to create the walls of the vagina. The specifics depend on the size of the penis and the surgeon's techniques. During this procedure, it is also common to alter the urethra by is shortening and repositioning it so that it functions as it would in a female body.
A vaginoplasty is done to improve the function of the body part and should not be confused with labiaplasty, which is more of an aesthetic change. While performing a vaginoplasty, it is common to include a labiaplasty and clitoroplasty to create female genitals that are aesthetic, minimally scarred, and sensitive to sexual arousal.
The techniques used to feminise a face vary based on the client’s facial structure and features, with the following procedures used:
- Face lift
- Otoplasty (ear pinning)
- Rhinoplasty (nose surgery)
- Tracheal shave (reducing the size of the Adam’s Apple)
The techniques used vary from client to client, with the following procedures used:
- Tummy tuck
- Breast augmentation
- Buttock implant
LENGTH OF SURGERY +
The length of surgery depends on the procedures performed, your body and your surgeon’s recommendations. It is common to stay in the hospital for 14 nights.
Recovery and post-op care:
While your recovery will depend on the procedures performed, it is common to experience pain and discomfort following the surgery, which will be managed by painkillers prescribed by your surgeon.
Your surgeon will give you instructions on how to perform periodic dilation (stretching the vagina walls). You will be given a dilator to wear inside the vagina to ensure it does not close over or change in shape. It is common to do this for eight weeks following your vaginoplasty, with the frequency gradually reducing. The vagina should be cleaned regularly as per your surgeon’s specific instructions.
You will be able to return to light work 4 to 6 weeks after surgery, and slowly being more strenuous work and exercise around 6 to 8 weeks after surgery.
Length of stay:
Most surgeons recommend staying on holiday for at least 21 days, during which time you will have regular follow-up appointments with your surgeon. To get the most out of your recovery time we suggest you partake in gentle exercise, yoga classes and treat yourself to some pampering. If you are feeling up to it, there is plenty to see and do in Phuket, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur.
PRECONDITIONS AND RISKS +
Risks and complications are minimised by using the care and services of our highly-skilled, trusted doctors and nurses. However, with every precaution taken complications can still occur. These are rare and few patients experience any issues. If you have any concerns about your procedure and the possible preconditions and risks, please discuss them with your doctor and nurses.
Potential risks include:
- Hematoma (which can be treated either through puncture or surgery, depending on the size)
- Nipple necrosis (which can be corrected with aesthetic procedures to reconstruct the nipples should this happen)
OTHER PROCEDURES TO CONSIDER +
If you would like to take advantage of your time away, there are other non-surgical procedures you can add so you return home feeling refreshed. These include cosmetic fillers, laser resurfacing and chemical peels.
Got a question? Talk to our friendly team
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MEET OUR SURGEONS
- dr. theerapong, - dr. wilasinee, about clinic.
MTF SEX CHANGE SURGERY
Non - surgery
How much does sex reassignment surgery (srs) cost in thailand.
Thailand is one of the world’s top medical tourism destinations. The country, famous for its stunning beaches and warm hospitality, is also well-known for its world-class medical facilities, including the highest number of internationally-accredited hospitals in Southeast Asia.
The Thai government has recently announced plans to boost economic recovery in the post-Covid era by focusing on promoting the country as a medical tourism hub. This should assure overseas visitors of the high quality of medical treatment as well as medical facilities offered to visitors.
In addition to high-quality general medical treatment, Thailand is also the world’s leading overseas destination for sex reassignment surgery (SRS), also known as gender reassignment surgery or gender affirming surgery. More gender reassignment surgeries are performed every year in Thailand than anywhere else in the world. Thai surgeons, such as Interplast Clinic’s Dr. Theerapong, are highly regarded for their expertise and their unique versatility in this field.
The Cost of Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand
Interplast Clinic is one such clinic offering gender reassignment surgery in Bangkok, Thailand. The cost of gender reassignment surgery at our clinic can vary from THB 350,000-600,000 baht ($10,000-$17,000), which is likely to be significantly less than a similar procedure in your own country.
One of the main factors affecting the cost is the technique that the surgeon will use to perform the operation. Let’s look at the different SRS techniques and their associated costs in more detail.
Sex Reassignment Surgery Techniques
Scrotal skin grafting.
In scrotal skin grafting technique, the neovagina is constructed from different parts of the existing genitalia. Due to most of the nerves and blood vessels remaining intact, the newly constructed neovagina is functional and has erogenous sensitivity.
At our clinic, the scrotal skin grafting procedure costs THB 350,000 (10,000 USD).
MTF Sigmoid Colon Vaginoplasty
In this SRS technique, a part of the patient’s sigmoid colon is used to create the neovagina. Our surgeon selects the perfect section of colon that yields a vagina with a light smell and natural discharge that is comparable with any cis female.
At our clinic, MTF Sigmoid Colon vaginoplasty procedure costs between THB 400,000-580,000 (11,500-16,750 USD)
Peritoneal Pull-Through Vaginoplasty
PPV surgery is performed through an incision in the peritoneum with the aid of a laparoscopic camera. The surgery will result in a self-lubricating vagina that doesn’t need dilation beyond the first year. With nerves and blood vessels intact, the natural sensitivity is increased. At our clinic, the peritoneal pull-through vaginoplasty (PPV) procedure costs THB 600,000 (17,330 USD).
MTF SURGERY COST
The above prices are general estimates only (as of September 2022). The exact pricing will be determined after a consultation. Prices are all-inclusive, including your surgeon, anesthesiologist and operating room (OR) fees.
About Dr. Theerapong
Dr.Theerapong Poonyakariyagorn, MD is the chief plastic surgeon at Interplast Clinic in Bangkok. He is certified by the Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons of Thailand and is an active member of the International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ISAPS), the leading international body of board-certified plastic surgeons. His pioneering SRS techniques provide patients with the most anatomically correct, functional and aesthetic neovagina.
Find out more on MTF sex reassignment surgery at Interplast Clinic.
- Cosmetic And Plastic Surgery /
- Gender Reassignment Surgery Treatment
What is Gender Reassignment Surgery cost in Thailand?
Lowest Cost (approx) $7000
Average Cost (approx) $15500
Highest Cost (approx) $24000
- Treatment Type: : Gender Reassignment Surgery
- Treatment Time: : 6 Months
- Recovery Time: : 6 Weeks
- Success Rate: : 75-99%
- Hospitalization Days: : 5–10 days
Get Cost Estimate of Gender Reassignment Surgery Treatment
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Table of Content
Gender Reassignment Surgery Doctors in Thailand
Cosmetic And Plastic Surgery Hospitals in Thailand
Cosmetic And Plastic Surgery questions asked by people
If you are planning to get Gender Reassignment Surgery in Thailand, it is important to know the cost of the treatment. This blog provides information about Gender Reassignment Surgery costs in Thailand.
The range of costs for Gender Reassignment in Thailand is $7,000-$24,000.
Dr. Chamnong Chirawichada
15 years of experience
Global Hospital Mumbai
Dr .G.d. Pol Foundation Ymt General Hospital
Kharghar, Navi Mumbai
Gender Reassignment Surgery, also known as Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS) or Gender Confirmation Surgery (GCS), is a medical procedure or a series of surgeries aimed at altering the physical characteristics and sexual characteristics of a transgender individual to align them more closely with their identified gender.
Gender Reassignment Surgery in Thailand is famous for its international standards and professionally skilled plastic surgeons at affordable cost.
The cost of Gender Reassignment in Thailand is less compared to many other countries. However, the cost depends on various factors.
A Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS) in Thailand costs around one-third less than one in the United States. Thailand ranks first in terms of affordable healthcare, gender-transition surgery specialists, and medical facilities. The cost of a Gender Reassignment Surgery in Thailand starts from $7000.
Cost comparison in different countries:
Here is the cost of Gender Reassignment Surgery in different countries:
Disclaimer: The cost of the different dental implant treatments depends on various factors given below
Factors affecting gender reassignment surgery cost in thailand:.
- Doctor’s competence and experience in the subject.
- The patient’s disease and whether additional modalities are required for comprehensive treatment.
- Duration of hospitalization and stay in the country.
- Need for post-operative care.
- Hospital room classification.
Why choose for Gender Reassignment Surgery treatment in Thailand?
The below listed make Thailand the best choice for Gender Reassignment Surgery:
- Gender Reassignment Surgery in Thailand is cost-effective.
- Thailand has high-quality medical facilities for the surgery.
- Experienced doctors and staff specialize in providing expert care.
- Combining the surgery with a vacation in Thailand offers tourism opportunities.
Disclaimer: The above rates are for reference purposes only and may vary based on different requirements. To know the actual rates, please contact us.
Disclaimer : The above rates are for reference purpose only and may vary based on different requirements. To know actual rates, please contact us.
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