How to Head a College Paper
How to Remove a Course From Your College Transcript
College is a new experience for students in many ways. From the freedom of scheduling classes at your convenience to finding your way around a new campus, the changes are evident immediately. Even the way you head your research papers may be different from what you have used in high school. There are a few simple rules to follow when heading a college paper. Once you get the format down, it will become second nature and you'll find yourself doing it automatically.
You can use MLA style for most papers you turn including homework assignments. When using this style on a written paper, do not skip lines in between the four lines of the initial heading. Your heading on subsequent pages should consist of your last name followed by the page number in a right justified format. Other paper formats you might use in college can include American Psychological Association (APA) and Chicago Style.
Heading and Margins
Place your heading in the upper left-hand corner of the page. To make sure your typed paper is easy to read on a visual level, use a 12-point font and recognizable font style. While the Times New Roman font is often chosen, Arial, Modern, Lucina and Palermo are also acceptable because they are not script-style fonts. This follows Modern Language Association (MLA) formatting which is the accepted standard for college papers.
First and Last Name
Place your first and last names on the first line. Double space each line of the heading. All lines of the heading are left justified at the left margin.
Place your professor's name on the next line. Use his first and last name preceded by Professor. For example, "Professor John Doe" goes on this line.
Place the name of your course on the next line. For example, you could use "English 101."
Place the date on the final line. To follow MLA formatting, the date should appear as the day in numeral format, the month in written format and the year. For example, "5 January 2011" is appropriate.
Title of Paper
Double space after the last line of your heading, and center the title of your paper on the next line. Use Title Case style to type the title. For example, "A History of Life During the Tudor Period."
Double space after the heading and begin your paper using a 1-inch indent to begin the first paragraph.
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MLA General Format
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MLA Style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and citing research in writing. MLA Style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages.
Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material produced by other writers.
If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the MLA Handbook (9th edition). Publishing scholars and graduate students should also consult the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd edition). The MLA Handbook is available in most writing centers and reference libraries. It is also widely available in bookstores, libraries, and at the MLA web site. See the Additional Resources section of this page for a list of helpful books and sites about using MLA Style.
The preparation of papers and manuscripts in MLA Style is covered in part four of the MLA Style Manual . Below are some basic guidelines for formatting a paper in MLA Style :
- Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper.
- Double-space the text of your paper and use a legible font (e.g. Times New Roman). Whatever font you choose, MLA recommends that the regular and italics type styles contrast enough that they are each distinct from one another. The font size should be 12 pt.
- Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks (unless otherwise prompted by your instructor).
- Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides.
- Indent the first line of each paragraph one half-inch from the left margin. MLA recommends that you use the “Tab” key as opposed to pushing the space bar five times.
- Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor may ask that you omit the number on your first page. Always follow your instructor's guidelines.)
- Use italics throughout your essay to indicate the titles of longer works and, only when absolutely necessary, provide emphasis.
- If you have any endnotes, include them on a separate page before your Works Cited page. Entitle the section Notes (centered, unformatted).
Formatting the First Page of Your Paper
- Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested or the paper is assigned as a group project. In the case of a group project, list all names of the contributors, giving each name its own line in the header, followed by the remaining MLA header requirements as described below. Format the remainder of the page as requested by the instructor.
- In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name, your instructor's name, the course, and the date. Again, be sure to use double-spaced text.
- Double space again and center the title. Do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks. Write the title in Title Case (standard capitalization), not in all capital letters.
- Use quotation marks and/or italics when referring to other works in your title, just as you would in your text. For example: Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas as Morality Play; Human Weariness in "After Apple Picking"
- Double space between the title and the first line of the text.
- Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name, followed by a space with a page number. Number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor or other readers may ask that you omit the last name/page number header on your first page. Always follow instructor guidelines.)
Here is a sample of the first page of a paper in MLA style:
The First Page of an MLA Paper
Writers sometimes use section headings to improve a document’s readability. These sections may include individual chapters or other named parts of a book or essay.
MLA recommends that when dividing an essay into sections you number those sections with an Arabic number and a period followed by a space and the section name.
MLA does not have a prescribed system of headings for books (for more information on headings, please see page 146 in the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing , 3rd edition). If you are only using one level of headings, meaning that all of the sections are distinct and parallel and have no additional sections that fit within them, MLA recommends that these sections resemble one another grammatically. For instance, if your headings are typically short phrases, make all of the headings short phrases (and not, for example, full sentences). Otherwise, the formatting is up to you. It should, however, be consistent throughout the document.
If you employ multiple levels of headings (some of your sections have sections within sections), you may want to provide a key of your chosen level headings and their formatting to your instructor or editor.
Sample Section Headings
The following sample headings are meant to be used only as a reference. You may employ whatever system of formatting that works best for you so long as it remains consistent throughout the document.
Level 1 Heading: bold, flush left
Level 2 Heading: italics, flush left
Level 3 Heading: centered, bold
Level 4 Heading: centered, italics
Level 5 Heading: underlined, flush left
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How to Write and Format Headings in Academic Writing
Published on March 15, 2019 by Shane Bryson . Revised on July 23, 2023.
The goal of using headings in a document is not only to divide information, but also to allow easy navigation of the document. In academic writing , headings help readers find the specific information they want while retaining a sense of how that information fits with everything else in the document.
To test for overall heading clarity, ask yourself the following: from reading your headings in sequence, would an informed reader understand…
- The content of the document as a whole?
- The specific content of each section?
- How each section fits with the others?
If not, your headings aren’t effective , and may need some improvement.
Table of contents
Headings vs. titles, how long should headings be, using descriptive headings, technical terms in headings, capitalization, formatting and sequencing, other interesting articles.
Although heading and titles are similar, they are distinct: A title leads the entire document and captures its content in one or two phrases; a heading leads only a chapter or section and captures only the content of that chapter or section. Read more in our article on writing good titles in academic writing .
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Headings should be as long as it takes to clearly communicate the content of the sections they head. However, each heading should be as concise as possible – a good rule of thumb is to limit the heading length to one line.
Higher-level vs. lower-level headings
Higher-level headings often make do with a single word (e.g. “ Introduction ” or “ Methods ”), while lower-level headings are often longer. This is because higher-level headings cover more general content and provide an overview. One word is clear enough because everyone already knows what happens in an introduction chapter – nothing more needs to be said.
Lower-level headings should use more specific terminology to help clarify the content of the section. These headings help readers find the exact information they’re looking for.
The main goal of a heading is to inform the reader of what content they can find in that section, so make your headings as descriptive as possible. The examples below show one non-descriptive heading and three descriptive headings that provide the reader with much more information.
- Profile of GPS technology
- Function of GPS in aviation
- GPS before 1999
Avoiding repetitive headings
No two sections should focus on the exact same content, so no two headings should be identical. Instead of closing a chapter with “Summary,” for example, try making the heading little more descriptive: “Summary of X .”
Documents in fields that rely heavily on jargon and technical language will contain headings that might not be clear to every reader. That’s fine as long as you keep your reader’s knowledge level in mind. However, if you don’t need the jargon to give a specific idea of your content, then avoid it.
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At the outset, make a plan for how you will deal with matters of capitalization , formatting and sequencing of headings. Headings at the same level should be formatted the same. For instance, “Section 2.2” should get the same treatment as “Section 4.1”. They should also have parallel structure .
Often, your style guide or university will offer specific directions on how to approach the capitalization, formatting, and sequencing of headings, so it’s wise to check before you start writing them. For example, APA headings and MLA headings require specific formatting.
Using automatic heading styles in Word
To avoid having to format each heading separately, it’s smart to use the heading styles feature offered by Microsoft Word, Google Docs and many other word-processing softwares.
An extra benefit of using these heading styles is that you can automatically generate and update a table of contents. This will save you a lot of time later on. Read more about this in our article on creating a table of contents .
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1. A Proper Heading
- Your instructor’s name
- The course name
2. Mind Your Margins
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Tips For College Assignment Heading
Table of Contents
An assignment heading is effective only when it is clear, concise, and relevant. It should include title, course name, and the student’s name. To improve the quality of your work, you can seek a college assignment help too. You’ll need to understand the following aspects when writing a college paper: Title, Purpose and the MLA Style. Page length is also important. These are tips for college assignment titles. The MLA format is the best format to use to write research papers. These tips will help you create an essay to college. Making sure your essay is formatted correctly using MLA formatting is crucial.
The title page will be the most important thing your professor is likely to see. It must meet two main goals in order to provide the reader with the necessary details, and also to create a good impression. In this post, we’ll review the proper layout for your title page and provide suggestions on how you can make it stand out from the other papers. For tips and tricks on designing a title page which is memorable for canada assignment help follow this article.
The cover page of the college project should have the student’s name as well as the institution or college that gave the assignment and the due date. In some cases, you’ll have to make a declaration regarding plagiarism on your paper. It states that the writing is completely original and was not copied from another source. Different assignment types require different covers pages. Therefore, you need to consult your academic adviser or your professor for the appropriate one that matches the type of paper you are writing and your academic style.
The best way to begin an assignment is by stating the assignment’s purpose. For most educational settings it will be in the form of the name of the professor, such as “Professor Jones,” “Dr. Jones,” or simply “Jones.” This may include a code for the course, but ensure that you clearly label it. An incorrect course description can result in a deduction of a grade. These are some helpful tips for starting your college project.
First, you’ll need to determine the format of the paper. A header is required for all documents. It refers to the page number located on the left-hand side of the page. The font style for a heading should be a recognizable one, such as Times New Roman. Arial, Lucina and Palermo are the most acceptable fonts to use for college essays. For college papers it is recommended to follow the standards of the Modern Language Association. This means that the both names of the author be mentioned in the title and all lines be lined towards the left.
In MLA format, headings for college papers provide the most important information upfront. This helps discern who wrote the assignment and also who’s instructing. While it may seem more professional to address professors or instructors by their full names, this is acceptable. Instructors or professors will provide specific instructions for students. Particular guidelines must be followed in the MLA formats for headings of college assignments.
The heading should use the same typeface as the remainder of the paper. It is important to consider readability when choosing the right font. A font that is difficult to read could create difficulties. Times New Roman is the best choice for paper following MLA format. A header should only be located on the front page. It is recommended to include a header on every subsequent page.
Headings for college assignments, there are specific format rules. The first line and last line of the heading must be one-inch apart. The college assignment’s initial page should have a number, and it must include instructors’ names, dates of birth and student as well as the date and course names. It is important to adhere to the guidelines for style set by the institution. It is possible to experiment with various styles of fonts in case you do not want to go with the traditional font.
Within the body of college projects In the body of college assignments, a reference list needs to be provided. This page should be clearly marked with the author’s name and affiliation as well as the date of publication as well as the editor. In this part, you must also cite the source you have employed. This page should be referenced as references. Make sure you acknowledge the author of the original source in order to not commit plagiarism.
References are listed by alphabetical order. As an example, the initial phrase in a reference should be the name of the author, or, if the author is unknown, the first word of the title. Following the author’s name then the comma must be followed by a colon or a period. If the source cites two or more works the works should be listed alphabetically separated with a semi-colon. It is in accordance with APA style
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Complete Guide on College Papers Format
Table of Contents
A college paper is an academic assignment where students are required to analyze a topic, express their opinion on some issue or overview a specific subject. Writing a college paper may be challenging even if you know the subject well. There are many instructions to follow, in particular on formatting. It’s essential to know how to create a title page or, if sticking to MLA format, how to head a college paper properly.
In this article, you will find answers to these and many other questions that will help you effectively manage college paper formatting. Keep reading to learn how to head a college paper.
Why Paper Format Matters
Your college paper shows how well you understand the topic and if you can express your thoughts clearly. Every educational institution requires a single format for academic papers. It makes the works look identical and prevents students from using fancy styles. The format helps the Professor easily follow content as the text is well-structured without any distracting elements.
They focus on the topic as nothing in the paper style and formatting impedes understanding. It’s easier for a professor to grade papers in a consistent format. They can quickly detect specific things like citations, page numbers, dates or names, etc. That’s why you should make sure you know how to head a college paper and what format your educational institution and a professor require before starting writing. Proceed with the article to learn how to head a college paper.
College Paper Formats
When you have got no instructions on formatting, then it’ll be useful to know standard paper formats. The most popular are MLA, APA, Chicago, and Harvard. Here we’ll briefly outline them to make you well aware of possible formatting styles for your paper.
- The American Psychological Association has a format that is perfect if you are writing a research paper. APA is widely used in social sciences, not only by students but researchers and scientists.
- Arts and History college papers are mostly written using the Chicago formatting style. Pay attention to the format variant your Professor requires, as it may have footnotes or in-text references.
- The Harvard format is most popular among Australian students. They use it for different subjects for a clear structure and simple formatting rules.
- The Modern Language Association style has many editions, and they try to keep up with the latest trends in academic writing formatting.
Standard Paper Format
There are basic elements every college paper formatting should include. Read standard paper format rules that will make your work highly valued by the Professor.
- College paper length: the average size of a college paper ranges from five to seven pages.
- Margin sizes: a college paper, as a rule, has 1-inch margins from all sides. However, there are cases when professors set specific requirements.
- Title page: this paper element differs among styles. Check official paper samples to make the right title page. MLA does not have a title page, and a writer should include in the heading their name, instructor’s name, course, and date. APA or Chicago papers have the same data on the title page.
- Headers and footers: this section includes page numbers and paper titles. Some styles require a shortened paper title, some require writing every title word capitalized, etc.
- Fonts: use standard fonts like Times New Roman, Calibri, or Arial with a readable 12 size. Consider your instructor’s requirements and avoid fancy font styles.
- Page layout. Your college paper should have paragraphs’ indentation and left-justified text. Make your formatting neat and clean, remove redundant spaces, and pay attention to other small details.
- Headings formatting: a proper paper structure is represented by structured headings and subheadings. Put your headings at the center of the line. But every style has specific headings formatting rules.
- Body: make your text readable following basic college papers format rules. So you should mind word capitalization, punctuation, text font, and size. Left justify your text, indent paragraphs, and pay attention to required spacing. Mind using one space between words.
- References: Every style has its rules here as well. You have to include the same bibliographical details but in a different way. Do not mix styles and organize your references properly.
How to Head a College Paper
It is crucial to note that a college paper heading differs from a high school paper title. As a rule, a college paper heading consists of a group of data placed at the top. It is an integral element of the academic paper that is essential for its quality. Heading your college paper properly shows your diligence and attention to detail. If you do not follow simple heading rules, your paper will look unprofessional. Once you learn the heading format, you will do it automatically. Let’s find out simple rules on how to head a college paper.
H3: Heading Format
There are essential tips on your college paper format that will make it academically correct.
- You can use MLA style for your college papers.
- The heading should be placed in the upper left-hand corner of the page.
- Use a 12-point font to make it readable.
- You should use one of the recognizable font styles, including the Times New Roman, Arial, Modern, Palermo, and Lucina.
- All the lines should be aligned at the left margin.
- Double-space each line of the heading.
You should write your first and last names on the first line. Then place your Professor’s name on the next line. Use his first and last name preceded by the word Professor.
After the initials, on the third line, you put your course name. This line also should be left-aligned.
H3: On the fourth line, write the date you submit your essay. You should stick to MLA formatting and put the day in the numeral, month, and the year in written formats.
Before writing the title, double space after the last line of your heading. You should place it at the center of the line. It’s recommended to use the Case style for titles. Make sure there’s a one-inch indent below the top margin.
Finally, if you want to know how to head a college paper the best way, pay attention that the heading is in a formal style. There are no grammatical mistakes. Use spell check to ensure good paper quality and legibility.
How to Use References in College Papers
References are an integral component of academic work, from college to grading papers. They influence your overall mark and make the work look well organized. You give credit to the authors and demonstrate what high-quality sources were used to support your ideas. Besides, references are crucial to check for plagiarism as they indicate resources you used in the paper, including citations, summaries, and paraphrasings.
A reference list has several characteristics, including:
- It’s placed at the end of your college paper on a separate pageю
- It’s organized alphabetically by author’s last nameю
- Each entry includes the bibliographic information (author, year, title, publication place, number of pages, URL).
Listing rules for a website differ from rules for listing books or articles. So make sure you know listing rules for different sources types.
Firstly, decide which citation style to use and define the type of your information source. There are different citation styles of reference lists. It often depends on the educational institution, program, and sometimes the course. APA is often used in business programs, MLA – arts programs, and AMA-medical programs. They define how you format your in-text references. You should always consult your Professor to find what citation style they expect to see in your reference list.
Common Paper Formatting Mistakes
Students usually make the same paper formatting mistakes which are important to remember if you want to know how to head a college paper. So we collected them here for you to remember them and try to avoid them in your work.
- Incorrectly set margin. Consider using the left margin to 1.5 inches and all others to 1 inch.
- Using different font styles and sizes throughout the work. So it’ll be better to always use a readable Times New Roman font.
- Leaving single lines at the bottom of the top of the page.
- Emphasizing a word with italics, boldfacing, underlining, or quotation marks.
- Capitalization of common nouns.
- Incorrect long dashes formatting with spaces between the words it is separating.
- Inconsistent spelling and capitalization of sources cited in the text and the list of references.
- Not proofread paper with many typos that deteriorate the work quality but could be easily corrected if checked before submitting.
Writing high-quality content and expressing thoughts coherently is a requirement not only for academic papers from professors; these are also essential for other types of works for different professions and organizations, like writing a white paper. The ability of a student to focus on detail and consistently represent elements in a long written work plays a crucial role in success. So knowing paper formatting is necessary for every student. Learn the basic rules on how to head a college paper, and you will easily format your college and then other types of papers automatically.
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- Experts Tips on College Assignment Formats & Structure with Examples
Experts Tips on College Assignment Formats & Structure with Examples
The first thing that every student should consider while beginning any assignment is a complete understanding of the assignment format. Depending upon the type of the assignment its structure and formatting requirements vary. Students are generally given guidelines from their professors regarding the assignment formatting such as file format, font, layout, word count, referencing style, headers, footers, numbering and heading requirements. In case you have no idea what should be the structure of your assignment, the following article presents some common assignment formats with examples.
Basic Structure Elements of an Assignment
Our online assignment help experts always suggest the students to at least maintain the generalized structure of the assignment if their instructor has not specified any format. A university assignment typically comprises of the following six sections. Along with these, there can be certain presentation schemes to be followed such as providing a proper referencing format, leaving adequate margins, line spacing, page numbers, and font style and font size.
- Table of Contents
Also Read: Assignment Cover Sheet Sample and Templates
Research Paper Assignment Format
A research paper is divided into the following parts:
- Â Â Â Title of the Research
- Â Â Â Abstract
- Â Â Â Table of Contents
- Â Â Â Introduction
- Â Â Â Research Methodology
- Â Â Â Findings and discussions
- Â Â Â Conclusions
- Â Â Â References and Citations
- Â Â Â Appendices
The presentation of the research paper is based on the referencing format suggested by your college instructor. For instance, if you are using MLA referencing format you will name the source page as â€˜Works Citedâ€ while in case of APA format you will name it as â€˜Referencesâ€. Below you can find a sample MLA assignment format.
Essay Assignment Format
An essay consists of the following five parts. Below them, you can find a sample template elaborating the significance of each section.
- Â Â Â Thesis Statement
- Â Â Â Conclusion
- Â Â Â Citations
You should always keep this basic format in mind while preparing your college essays. In this way, you will be able to divide your content accordingly. Each paragraph of an essay can also be divided into three parts namely, the topic sentence of the paragraph, the supporting details and the conclusion statement.
Project Report Assignment Format
A project report is generally a compulsory academic assignment for students. Most of the university professors prefer that the report should be written as per an academic standard. A project report has the following structure:
- Â Â Â Title Page
- Â Â Â Acknowledgement
- Â Â Â Problem definition
- Â Â Â Objective
- Â Â Â Background
- Â Â Â Methodology
- Â Â Â Analysis
- Â Â Â Discussion
- Â Â Â Conclusion / Recommendations
- Â Â Â References / Bibliography
Case Study Assignment Format
A case study assignment includes the following sections:
- Â Â Â Background knowledge
- Â Â Â Alternatives and constraints
- Â Â Â Proposed Solutions
- Â Â Â Recommendations
The following example of a case study assignment depicts the sections stated above. You can find more case study templates and our expert assignment help on writing an effective case study on our website. Our experts will provide you with a step by step guide to writing a case study assignment.
Article Review Assignment Format
The format of a review paper includes:
- Body (Subtopics)
The college students are expected to use a standardized referencing system such as APA, AMA, MLA, Chicago etc. Each section has an appropriate word count associated with it and students have to maintain that. Consider the template of a literature review format given below.
Reflective Journal Assignment Format
Reflective journal assignments are of various types such as peer reviews, essays, journal, long book or learning diary. Each journal entry includes the given sections:
- Triggering event or situation
- Conclusion or Integration
Below you can find an example of a learning journal entry in which the author is presenting their weekly reflection. Read carefully and go through the numbered points and always consider them while writing a reflective assignment.
Annotated Bibliography Format
The annotated bibliography comprises two elements: the citation and annotation. The citation part is formatted according to the referencing format suggested by your university professors such as MLA or APA . The annotation part is a summary of 100-300 words about the source. Here is an example of an annotated bibliography written in MLA style.
Tips on Formatting Assignments Accurately
- Read your instructor’s guidelines carefully before beginning an assignment. Make sure you understand every instruction correctly and you are following them while writing the assignment.
- If there is any confusion regarding the presentation or format of the assignment you can just cross-check with your professor once again. You can also seek assistance from our experts. They are well-versed in academic assignment writing formats.
- Also, always make sure that you understand the writing task. The format of every assignment is different. Sometimes students misinterpret an assignment question and then have to reconsider the format as well.
- Go through some assignment format examples first to understand the pattern of writing. You can find assignment samples from our website anytime. If your professor provides you with some examples make sure you go through them first.
- Take note of the referencing format you are using in your assignment. You should know all the formatting guidelines for the referencing style so that you can work accordingly.
Also Read: How to Write a Perfect Assignment?
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How to Get Your Homework Done in College
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In contrast to the academic requirements of high school, college courses present a much heavier, more consistent workload. And with everything else that college students have to manage -- jobs, personal life, relationships, physical health, cocurricular obligations -- it can sometimes seem like getting your homework done is an impossible feat. At the same time, however, not getting your work done is a recipe for disaster. So, what tips and tricks can you use to get your homework done in college?
Tips for Successfully Doing College Homework
Use these tips to create a process that works for you and your personal study style.
Use a Time Management System
Put all major assignments and their due dates in your time management system . A key part of staying on top of your homework is knowing what's coming; no one, after all, wants to realize on Tuesday that they have a major midterm on Thursday. To avoid surprising yourself, make sure all of your major homework assignments and their due dates are documented in your calendar. That way, you won't inadvertently sabotage your own success simply because you've mismanaged your time.
Schedule Homework Time
Schedule times to do homework each week, and keep those appointments. Without designated time for addressing your to-dos, you're more likely to cram at the last minute, which adds to your anxiety levels.
By putting homework on your calendar, you'll have the time allocated in your already-too-busy schedule, you'll reduce your stress by knowing when, exactly, your homework will be done, and you'll be better able to enjoy whatever else you have planned since you'll know your homework is already taken care of.
Sneak in Your Homework
Use small increments of time whenever possible. You know that 20-minute bus ride you have to and from campus every day? Well, that's 40 minutes a day, 5 days a week which means that if you did some reading during the ride, you'd get more than 3 hours of homework done during your commute.
Those little increments can add up: 30 minutes between classes here, 10 minutes waiting for a friend there. Be smart about sneaking in small bits of homework so that you can conquer the bigger assignments piece by piece.
You Can't Always Get It All Done
Understand that you can't always get all your homework done. One of the biggest skills to learn in college is how to gauge what you can't get done. Because sometimes, there really is only so many hours in a day, and the basic laws of physics mean you can't accomplish everything on your to-do list.
If you just can't get all your homework done, make some smart decisions about how to choose what to do and what to leave behind. Are you doing great in one of your classes, and skipping the reading one week shouldn't hurt too much? Are you failing another and definitely need to focus your efforts there?
Hit the Reset Button
Don't get caught up in the get-caught-up trap. If you fall behind on your homework , it's easy to think -- and hope -- that you'll be able to catch up. So you'll set a plan to catch up, but the more you try to catch up, the more you fall behind. If you're falling behind on your reading and are feeling overwhelmed, give yourself permission to start anew.
Figure out what you need to get done for your next assignment or class, and get it done. It's easier to cover the material you missed when you're studying for an exam in the future than it is to fall further and further behind right now.
Use Your Resources
Use class and other resources to help make doing your homework more productive and efficient. You might, for example, think that you don't need to go to class because the professor only covers what's already been addressed in the reading. Not true.
You should always go to class -- for a variety of reasons -- and doing so can make your homework load lighter. You'll better understand the material, be better able to absorb the work you do out of class, be better prepared for upcoming exams (thereby saving you studying time and improving your academic performance), and overall just have a better mastery of the material. Additionally, use your professor's office hours or time in an academic support center to reinforce what you've learned through your homework assignments. Doing homework shouldn't just be a to-do item on your list; it should be an essential part of your college academic experience.
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Get top-notch content from the best college paper writing service., what is a college paper heading.
A college paper heading is the array of data located in the upper part of your essay. It’s a quintessential part of your document because it formally states information about the author, grade, college, professor, and more.
In short, it’s the date and name you write at the top of a test. Nevertheless, while most high school students are allowed to choose whatever font and style they prefer, college requires a much more strict approach.
Furthermore, in high school, you may have very few research papers to head. Alternatively, most colleges expect you to head every document you put together because they become official proof of your academic progress. For this reason, we are dedicating the following article: heading of college paper.
In this editorial, you’ll find a thorough step-by-step guide to heading college paper. The information will help your academic endeavors even if you get help from a college paper writer or a freelance professional.
Step by step guide to head a college paper
Before picking up a pen, you should know that there is more than one paper style. Having multiple options means that your professor can ask you to use one or another for different essays. Being able to mix it up means that you are capable, attentive, and organized.
The two main college paper header styles are:
- Modern Language Association, MLA, is the most used citation style, specific to the Humanities.
- American Psychological Association, APA, is specific to Sciences, Education, and Psychology as the name suggests.
We’ll explain how the heading for college paper works, and we’ll also specify the requirements for each style.
Step 1: Choose the paper style you need
We previously named the two main styles. So, choose the one that seems more appropriate if your teacher hasn’t expressed their preference. MLA is the most used, but if you’re in Sciences, Psychology, or Education, APA might be better.
Next, check to see if your grammar software or writing app has any options regarding styles. A similar option might make it easier for you to follow the criteria. Dedicated writing apps will help you maintain a specific heading type and will automatically correct you.
Step 2: Margins And Page Format
Start by setting the margins and spacing according to the style you choose.
For this college heading format, you’ll need to set your paper to the standard size (8.5 x 11 inches). All page margins should be one inch while the text is double spaced and typed. Moreover, titles are redundant in MLA unless your professor precisely asked for one.
You can use Times New Roman, Modern, or Arial fonts, as they are the most advised, but don’t forget to pick the 12-point font size. If you want to stand out, you can also select a rarely used font as long as it’s easy to read and not in a script-style. Lastly, when typing the four lines of the heading, don’t skip any lines in-between.
The APA style requires a standard paper with double-spaced typed text, just like the MLA style. The four margins can be broader, around a one-and-a-half-inch.
Unlike MLA, The APA college heading format expects a page title, called a “manuscript header.” To compose a manuscript header, you should pick two essential keywords from your paper title that describes your research. Write them in lower-case letters except for the first letter of each word. Then, add the number of the page. These elements should be directed to the right and one inch below the top margin.
Next, add your title below the manuscript header but centered on the page. The preferred fonts are Times New Roman, Arial, and all the non-script ones.
Step 3: Name and surname
You have to specify the author of your research. So, write your first and last name.
When using the MLA style, you’ll need to add your surname and number of the page to every top right corner in a right-justified format with no punctuation. Then, you’ll write your first and last name to the left.
After the title of your research paper, place your name. It should be centered just like the title.
Step 4: College details
After the name and titles, you can add more information about your course, professor, and institution.
Write your professors’ name, code, and the title of the course, as well as the date (day, name of the month capitalized, and year). Your name and these last lines should appear at the top left of your page. In contrast, the surname and number of the page should be the only thing aligned to the right at the very top.
After your name, write the institution’s name and the department you major in, but make sure it’s all centered.
Step 5: First paragraph
This particular college paper heading format presents your work title before the first paragraph, centered with capitalized words. Avoid underlining or quoting your title.
Starting with the first paragraph, try to make your essay easier to read and understand. You can do so by adding subheadings with titles and a one-space line between two paragraphs.
All of your sections should have a five-space indentation at the beginning of the first sentence.
Lastly, remember to set your text to double-spaced.
For APA, here’s where you start your essay. The abstract is followed by:
- Text, which can be divided into sections with titles for each one.
- References and appendices.
- Author notes.
- Tables and figures.
Once you finished your paper, each section, such as “References,” should have an appropriate title with centered text.
The APA college paper heading format allows you to have subheadings that you can use to section your thesis. Nonetheless, you might want to ask your professor for advice or consult the APA stylebook.
Practical tips every student can use when writing a college paper heading
Writing a college paper header may seem as simple as can be but make no mistake. It can a valuable occasion for you to show that you are a dedicated student who puts effort into their work.
Pay attention to the details mentioned previously. Keep these tips in mind when revising and proofreading the paper.
Tip 1: Be original
Don’t try to make your paper longer by enlarging the font or copy-pasting words at the bottom. If you want academic success, you should only deliver a genuine product of your intellectual skills.
Moreover, keep in mind that your professors are experienced and knowledgeable. You’ll damage your reputation as a student if you try to deceive your teachers. Better to play it safe.
Tip 2: Use standard formatting
Don’t over-decorate your page. Adding a script-style font and too many figures will make your report less comprehensible and formal. Try to use the standard fonts and if you wish to add some extra elements, ask your professor for advice.
Tip 3: Use punctuation correctly
Use quotation marks and italics for quotations and works you’re mentioning in your paper. Leave your title, name, and most elements free of decorative or particular formatting and punctuation.
Tip 4: Use spaces wisely
Use a spaced line inside paragraphs (every two or three sentences) and between them, but don’t overdo it.
Tip 5: Use software to help you
You can use different software that can ease your work with grammar check and syntax.
Plagiarism is also an important aspect of your work. Only deliver 100% original work. Otherwise, you might be severely penalized academically. To prevent accidental plagiarism, check your work through anti-plagiarism apps.
The way you present your college paper says a lot about you. A proper heading can indicate that the author is passionate, determined, and focused on their work. So, when you’re preparing your next essay, try to follow our guide.
Firstly, choose your style and stick to it. MLA and APA styles are most common, but if you wish to use other formatting styles, gather as much information as you can.
Next, write your name, your professor’s and university’s, and place the title according to the requirements. Divide your paragraphs and keep them clear and easy to understand. Furthermore, try to avoid decorative stile and over-the-top punctuation. Keep a formal outlook and simple syntax. Also, check to see if your grammar is spotless and if your work is original.
We also recommend you ask for help.
The first person who should help you is your professor. It’s their job to guide you and offer valuable advice. So, contact them and ask for clarification. You can also kindly ask them to revise your work. Nonetheless, teachers are busy and may not have the time. Consider hiring a professional writer to help you with your schoolwork.
Additionally, you can offer to revise your peer’s works, and they can do the same. Cross-checking can be useful because we often tend to overlook repetitive mistakes. So, having someone else look at your work might point them out.
Finally, plenty of reliable sites can help you write from scratch, edit, revise, and format your work. You can get professional help from people who went to the same college as you, thus having an ideal approach for your situation. Just make sure that you pick a highly-rated site that offers you 24/7 customer service and employs professionals. Also, look out for plagiarism checks and reviews.
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- September 9, 2021
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How to Take Notes in College: The Ultimate Guide to Help You Ace Your Classes
That’s where your notes come in. Taking better notes in class is a crucial part of your academic success, and something you’re going to be doing a lot of in the next few years – longer if you’re taking a post-graduate program.
But how do you know that you’re doing it well enough? When you start your freshman year, you’re thrown into this new world and your lecture structure is going to be very different from what you’re used to. A lot of information is going to come at you at once, and you need to be ready to keep your notes organized.
This guide will tell you what you need to know to learn how to take notes that will help you in your study sessions, while writing your essays, and everything in between.
The Importance of Learning How to Take Notes
Learning how to take notes the right way will be the key to your success in college or university. It’s a great way to make sure you maximize your performance at school and get the best grades you can in your courses.
When you attend a lecture, you’re expected to be jotting down the key points of information that your professor is discussing. Sometimes this information is available in the textbook or lecture slides, but most of the time you’re expected to remember it on your own.
Notes are extremely important when it comes to everything from studying for tests and exams to writing papers, essays, and even presentations. When you don’t take great notes, you won’t have a lot to go with during crunch time. Even worse, no one wants to sit through a lecture only to get to your study session and find that you’re missing pieces of information that are crucial for your exam.
Effective note taking skills will also take you through your career, especially if you plan on working in an environment where there will be meetings, documents, paperwork, and reports. Taking great notes is a key way to impress your boss and be great at your job in the future.
What Are the 5 Rs of Note Taking?
The first thing you should know when learning how to take notes in college is the 5 Rs of note taking. According to Penn State University, these are the 5 Rs:
1. Record: Write down any important or relevant information during your lecture. Your professor won’t always tell you which information is meaningful, so do your best to learn how to determine what matters and what’s just extra details.
2. Reduce: After your lecture is over, go over your notes and condense them into a summary with the key points. Read our blog on how to write a precis if you need help with the summarization.
3. Recite: During your study sessions, you want to be able to recall or recite the information without looking at your notes. Use them for memorization.
4. Reflect: As you read over your notes later, you want to think about them in a critical way and be able to relate them to the overarching themes of your course and even the world.
5. Review: Always take some extra time to review the notes you’ve taken after each lecture while they’re still fresh in your mind. This way, if you forgot to write something down you can add it in and you’ll also get a head start on studying.
Typing Your Notes in Class vs. Using a Pen and Notebook
One key decision you’ll have to make when learning how to take notes in class is how you will take down those notes. While most students these days tend to bring their laptops and take notes in class that way, many students prefer the good old pen and notebook technique. Both methods have their advantages, but one is better than the other when exam day rolls around.
There is scientific evidence that proves that writing notes by hand helps you remember them more effectively. In one study by the University of California, researchers had students split into two groups – one group took notes by hand in a lecture, while the other group used a laptop and typed them. The researchers quizzed the students on the lecture material half an hour after class, when they had no time to review, and then again one week later, when they’d had the whole week to study. During both quizzes, the group that took notes by hand got better scores.
The reason for this is that writing your notes out by hand utilizes your muscle memory and motor function, which forces you to pay attention to what you’re writing down. As a result, the information sticks in your brain more effectively. Mindlessly typing out what your professor is saying won’t make you absorb that information as well – or at all.
Sure, writing out all of those notes is likely going to leave you with some hand cramps and typing them lets you organize them as you go. But bringing your laptop can also give you a really easy way to get distracted in class, and you’re less likely to pay attention to what your professor is saying if you’re just typing out what they have on their slides.
Ultimately, the way you choose to take down notes in class is entirely up to you, but it is scientifically proven that writing them by hand is more effective for studying and memorization.
What is the Best Way to Take Notes?
When it comes to learning how to take notes, there is no one-solution-fits-all that works for every single student. Some people are visual learners, while others prefer to read text or listen by ear. The same goes when you’re figuring out how to study effectively – you need to know your own learning style first before you commit to one method.
There are a variety of different methods of effective note taking that you might choose to use. Sometimes you may find that the method you use isn’t really working out for you. If that’s the case, switch it up and try something else instead.
To take proper notes, you need to gather a few key supplies first. You will need the following things at the minimum:
● Lecture slides
● Sticky notes
● Cue cards or index cards
● Any other course materials
Some of these supplies may apply only to in-class note taking, while others will be more useful during your at-home study sessions and lecture review time. Regardless of when, you’ll need all of them at some point in time, so put them on your back to school checklist .
How to Take Notes: Proven Strategies For Effective Note Taking
In the next few sections, we’ll cover a few different proven strategies for taking good study notes that appeal to a variety of learning styles and lecture styles. As we mentioned before, there are so many ways to take better notes and sometimes it takes a bit of trial and error to determine what works best for the way you learn and absorb information.
Don’t confine yourself to just one style of taking notes, either. You always have the ability to mix and match different methods and styles and morph them into something that is appealing to you. Since you’re the one using them, you have the freedom to do what works for you.
The Outline Method
When learning how to take notes, it’s important to know the basics first – so, let’s start there. The outline method is the most common technique used for taking notes in college and university lectures. This is because it’s simple, easy to do, and is very effective when it comes to study time.
The outline method for taking notes is very similar to the way that you would make an outline for an essay . You’ll use headings, subtitles, and bullet points to jot down points of information about a specific topic or subtopic. Use themes and topics as your headings and separate each chunk of bullet points by theme.
This is typically the easiest way because your professor’s lecture slides are likely also broken down by topics and subtopics. Use the topics on the slides to determine when to break up your bullet points into the next subheading. When your professor gives you secondary information, you can use indents under each bullet point or heading to identify that this information is a sub-point to something else.
The Cornell Method
It’s a little more complex than just jotting down bullet points, but the Cornell Method works well for those who need a little bit more of a systematic approach. If you’re more of a logical learner, this is the method you’ll probably find the most effective.
To use the Cornell Method, start by dividing a sheet of paper up into three sections. On the left, leave a column about 2 inches wide, so the area on the right side of the column is about 6 inches wide. Then, on the bottom, leave another 2 inches of space. Ultimately, your paper should have a thin vertical rectangle on the left, a thicker vertical rectangle on the right, and then a horizontal rectangle on the bottom.
Write your notes in the wider column on the right when you’re in class. Use the thinner left side column to write down cues and keywords that are associated with the more detailed notes. This will help you later on when it comes time to start studying and memorizing. At the bottom, in the horizontal column, add a summary. It doesn’t have to be a long one – just a few sentences that describe the content so it’s easier to go back and find information.
The Mind Map Method
You’ve likely made a mind map before when you were in high school or even elementary school. The mind map method for taking notes in college lectures is similar, but a little more detailed. This is an effective note taking technique for visual learners because it helps you clearly see the connections and relationships between topics, sub-topics, and supporting details. It’s also a great method to help you keep your notes organized if your professor likes to go off on side tangents during lectures.
Start with your topic or theme in the middle of the page. Circle it, and then have lines branch out from there going in all directions. At the end of each line, you’ll write and circle a major point or sub-topic. Then, each of those sub-topics will branch out to smaller bubbles that have more information or points about them.
Here’s an example: let’s say you’re taking notes in a lecture about the French Revolution. In the middle, you’ll write “French Revolution” and the years your lecture is covering. Branching out from there, you’d want to have circles that have sub-themes such as the Ancien Regime, the wars and battles, the rise of terror, the constitutional documents, and so on. From each of those points, you’d start listing off further details until you have one big map.
The Bullet Journal Method
If you’re a visual learner, the bullet journal method will be a great fit for you. However, be warned – this method is not effective for those who can only focus on one thing at a time. If you want pretty, visual, aesthetically pleasing notes, but you can’t multitask in class, you can always use one of the other methods above and then turn those notes into a bullet journal later on.
First of all, let’s answer the question you likely have in mind: what is a bullet journal? If you’re already into journalling, you’ve probably already heard of this because there are millions of Instagram posts dedicated to beautiful bullet journal styles and designs. However, if this is new to you, a bullet journal is a technique invented by web designer Ryder Carroll. Basically, you take a blank journal and number each page with an index at the front. From there, you can have each page include lists, logs, mind maps, bullet notes, question points, or other styles of note taking blended into one visually appealing design.
You can watch a free tutorial from Ryder himself here if you want more information or to see some examples of this kind of system in action.
The Sentence Method
A less common technique, the sentence method is pretty straightforward and doesn’t require a specific format or setup. All it involves is writing down information in your notes in full sentences, with one sentence on each line. When your professor starts talking about something new, start a new sentence on the next line.
The sentence method can be a little disorganized at times, and usually you’ll need to come back to it to re-write and organize everything later on. However, it’s great for taking good class notes when you have a professor who likes to throw a lot of information at you during a lecture and you don’t always know how it fits in until later on.
Your sentences don’t have to be completely full, either. You can use point form sentences and abbreviations so that you’re not wasting time trying to catch up, especially when your professor starts talking faster than you can write.
The Chart Method
This method can be a little difficult and is best used if your lectures are typically structured chronologically or in a very clear linear order, such as in the humanities. It might also take some trial and error when you begin because it’ll take some time to get used to putting things in their proper categories. However, this is a great tool for those who are hands-on learners because you’re actively processing and sorting information as you hear it.
To use the chart method, you start by setting up your paper with vertical columns, each with its own heading. Usually the heading would be a category, such as “dates,” “key figures,” “countries involved,” or “significant events.” The first heading on the left will be whatever you use for topics. So, for example, if you’re in an art history class looking at various pieces of art from the same time period, that first column will be for the name of the art piece.
After you’ve made your vertical columns and headings, go down and draw horizontal columns so you have squares. Essentially, you’re setting up your paper like a table or chart. As you start to take your notes in class, write down the information in the corresponding columns or squares.
The Lecture Slide Method
If all else fails, try the “lazy” method of printing out your lecture slides and bringing them to class to take down notes right on the same paper. It’s not the most elegant method for taking notes, but it’s certainly the fastest and easiest.
While this is another easy one to use, it will depend on your professor and the way they structure their lectures. Some professors don’t always give you the lecture slides ahead of time, and others don’t always go off what’s written there word for word.
The downfall of simply jotting your notes down on the provided lecture slides is that you probably won’t absorb as much of the information in class because you won’t have to write it down. That leaves tons of room to space out or absent-mindedly read the text without actually retaining it.
Quick Tips For Taking Better Notes in Class
Regardless of which note taking strategy works best for you, here are some quick tips that will help you take great notes and get better grades:
● Record your lecture if you’re allowed to so you can go back and listen later for anything you may have missed.
● Don’t assume you’ll remember something your professor mentions in class. Always write everything down so you’re covered if you forget anything.
● Use a serif type font when you’re typing up your notes. There is scientific research that shows that these fonts improve memory and information retention.
● When you take down notes by hand, don’t try to copy what your professor says word for word. Try to pick out the key points so you don’t miss important information while you’re trying to keep up.
● As you read through textbooks and study materials, add points to your in-class notes to create a more effective and helpful study guide. This way, you don’t have to go back through every file or document when getting ready for a test. Speed reading can be a great technique to help you with this.
● Don’t be afraid to raise your hand and ask your professor to repeat something if you missed it. You might not remember it by the time you go back to fill in the blanks, and you won’t get another opportunity to have it explained to you.
● If you take notes by hand, practice your handwriting so you can always read it easily later on.
● Don’t focus on writing out full sentences in your notes. Use short forms of words and create your own set of symbols and abbreviations to cut down time. For example, use a + instead of “and” or “w/” instead of “with.”
● Jot down any questions or areas you’re confused about in the left margin column of your notes so you can go back and review it later or ask your professor during office hours.
● Dedicate a section of your notes, or a few pages at the back of the notebook, to coming up with practice questions during lectures. This way, you have some premade practice questions to use when you’re studying later.
● Leave the first few pages in your notebook blank so you can go back and make a table of contents for your notes. This way, you can go back later on and find specific information easily.
You Can Learn How to Take Notes, or You Can Call in the Experts Instead
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A Drone Strike in Moscow and a Message: Russia Is Not Safe
The same building housing Russian government offices was hit twice within 48 hours.
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By Ivan Nechepurenko , Alina Lobzina and Victoria Kim
A building in central Moscow housing government ministries was struck by a drone Tuesday for the second time in 48 hours, as Ukrainian officials make it increasingly clear that they are not going to allow the war to be limited to their own soil.
“Moscow is rapidly getting used to a full-fledged war,” Mykhailo Podolyak, an adviser to Mr. Zelensky, said pointedly in a tweet on Tuesday.
Moscow’s mayor, Sergey Sobyanin, said the drone had hit the 21st floor of a tower that was damaged in an earlier strike over the weekend. Two other drones were shot down on the outskirts of Moscow, Russia’s Defense Ministry said, while a third was reported downed in Sevastopol, in Russia-occupied Crimea.
Ukraine has been generally coy when it comes to attacks within Russia’s borders, but in recent days President Volodymyr Zelensky and other top officials have signaled that the strikes are part of Kyiv’s strategy. Video of the latest attacks strongly suggested that one of the drones was a Ukrainian-made long-range model identified by The New York Times .
Though Russia has been little scathed by the attacks, they have managed to reach deep into its territory, where they have struck targets both symbolic and military, and rattled some nerves.
On Tuesday, Dmitri S. Peskov, the Kremlin’s spokesman, said that “there is a clear threat” and that “measures are being taken” to improve defenses of the capital. At the same time, the Russian authorities have tried to play down the risk.
The glass-facade high-rise that was struck twice in recent days in Moscow houses the ministries of digital development, economy and industrial development, but the Defense Ministry said the drone had been electronically jammed and lost control before crashing into the building.
The drone attack on Moscow was at least the fourth attempt in just over a week. Over the weekend, Mr. Zelensky said that the war “is returning to the territory of Russia — to its symbolic centers and military bases,” and described that shift as “inevitable, natural and absolutely fair.”
The damage in Russia, of course, is miniscule compared to the devastation Moscow’s troops have inflicted in Ukraine. On Tuesday alone, a Russian missile hit a clinic in the southern city of Kherson, killing a newly graduated doctor on his first day of work, seriously wounding a nurse and injuring three other medical workers.
In Moscow, by contrast, it was unclear if anyone was injured in the drone attack the same day.
City residents were encouraged by government-controlled media to take the new chapter of their lives in stride, and many appeared to be doing just that.
Mirlan Yzakov, who owns an investment company with an office in the Moscow City tower complex that was hit this weekend, said that he had learned about the drone strike on the news and that it had not affected his business. His team continues to work from their offices, he said.
“This is the time of conflict, a conflict of interests, so this is a natural procedure,” Mr. Yzakov said in a phone interview. “We live in a difficult time.”
Some Russians have had trouble adjusting to the idea that they, too, may now be in the cross hairs, however remote the risk.
Maksim Khodyrev, a real estate agent who specializes in the Moscow City area, said that he had begun to receive letters from apartment tenants saying that “they can no longer feel themselves safe” and “are thinking about canceling lease agreements.”
The country’s nationalist bloggers have tried to portray the attacks as an act of desperation by Ukraine, aimed at creating media noise because the Ukrainian counteroffensive is sputtering.
“There is zero military damage,” Andrei Perla, a political commentator for Tzargrad, an ultranationalist television channel, wrote on Telegram on Sunday after the first attack. “But there is a psychological effect.”
Many Russians are just trying to push the bad news out of their minds, Aleksandr Kynev, a Russian political analyst, wrote on the same platform.
“People are consciously or unconsciously ignoring it,” he wrote. “They want to shut themselves from it, because they want to preserve their lives to be as normal as possible.”
Ivan Nechepurenko reported from Tbilisi, Georgia; Alina Lobzina from London, and Victoria Kim from Seoul. Matthew Mpoke Bigg contributed reporting from London.
Ivan Nechepurenko has been a Times reporter since 2015, covering politics, economics, sports and culture in Russia and the former Soviet republics. He was raised in St. Petersburg, Russia, and in Piatykhatky, Ukraine. More about Ivan Nechepurenko
Victoria Kim is a correspondent based in Seoul, focused on international breaking news coverage. More about Victoria Kim
Our Coverage of the War in Ukraine
The Future of Ukraine : The European Union and NATO have promised a path to membership for the country . But real partnership will hold risks and benefits .
Photos : Photographers with The New York Times and other news organizations have been chronicling the war , capturing a slice of how soldiers and civilians have experienced it. Our photographers say some images will never leave them .
Defying Isolation: After the invasion of Ukraine, the West tried to cut Russia off from the rest of the world. But wealthy Russians continue to rely on a network of middlemen to circumvent the restrictions .
A Wartime Partnership: The alliance between President Biden and President Volodymyr Zelensky of Ukraine has become critical to the world order .
Zelensky’s Rise: The Ukrainian president, once brushed off as a political lightweight, has become a household name , representing his country’s tenacity.
How We Verify Our Reporting
Our team of visual journalists analyzes satellite images, photographs , videos and radio transmissions to independently confirm troop movements and other details.
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Drone hits Moscow tower housing ministries for second time, says mayor
Russian defence ministry blames Kyiv for attack as Ukrainian presidential adviser says Kremlin should expect ‘more war’
- Russia-Ukraine war – latest news updates
A high-rise building in Moscow housing Russian government ministries has been hit by a drone for the second time in three days, the city’s mayor has said, as a Ukrainian presidential adviser said the Kremlin should expect more drone attacks and “more war”.
The Russian defence ministry said two drones were destroyed by air defence systems in the Odintsovo and Naro-Fominsk districts near Moscow in a fresh wave of attacks on Tuesday, while it claimed a third was jammed and went “out of control” before it crashed in the Moscow City business district, a cluster of glass skyscrapers that was built to show Russia’s growing integration into world financial markets. The ministry blamed Ukraine for what it called an “attempted terrorist attack”.
Photos and video showed that a drone had ripped off part of the facade of a modern skyscraper, IQ-Quarter, 3.4 miles (5.5km) from the Kremlin, which houses staff from several ministries, including Russia’s ministry of digital development, communications and mass media.
“The facade of the 21st floor was damaged. The glazing of 150 sq metres was broken,” the Moscow mayor, Sergei Sobyanin, said in a Telegram post, adding that no injuries had been reported.
Ukraine has not formally admitted it was behind the strikes on Sunday and early on Tuesday, though they appear to be part of a growing strategy to bring home the consequences of Vladimir Putin’s war to Russia’s civilian population.
The Ukrainian presidential adviser Mykhailo Podolyak suggested in a tweet on Tuesday that the Russian capital, whose residents have largely been able to ignore the devastation being meted out on a daily basis in Ukraine, was experiencing payback.
“Moscow is rapidly getting used to full-fledged war, which, in turn, will soon finally move to the territory of the ‘authors of the war’ to collect all their debts. Everything that will happen in Russia is an objective historical process.
“More unidentified drones, more collapse, more civil conflicts, more war …” he wrote .
Russia’s economy ministry said its employees were working remotely after the latest attack. Moscow’s Vnukovo airport was also temporarily shut and flights redirected.
The Moscow City district towers, often unoccupied at night, are located further from the Kremlin than other highly defended government targets such as the ministry of defence, where Russia had stationed a Pantsir S-1 air defence system on the roof last year, and present a large, tall target.
In a video address on Sunday, the Ukrainian president, Volodymr Zelenskiy, made the same point as Podolyak as he said the war was coming home to Russia after three drones were shot down over Moscow.
“Gradually, the war is returning to the territory of Russia – to its symbolic centres and military bases. This is an inevitable, natural and absolutely fair process,” Zelenskiy said.
The attacks on Tuesday marked at least the fifth time that unmanned aerial vehicles have reached the Russian capital since May, when two drones came down over the Kremlin. Moscow and its surrounding area are more than 500km from the Ukrainian border and the conflict there.
While the damage so far has been relatively minor, the attacks appear designed to show up Moscow’s vulnerability to drone warfare. Ukrainian bloggers on Tuesday ironically repeated claims made in April by the commander of Russia’s air defences, Lieut Gen Andrey Demin.
“There is hardly a better sky shield anywhere in the world than Moscow,” Demin assured a Russian newspaper.
The Russian defence ministry said on Tuesday that it had also foiled a Ukrainian drone attack targeting patrol boats in the Black Sea.
The attack on Moscow came as Russia launched its own drone strike, on Kharkiv, Ukraine’s second-largest city, injuring one person. Five Iranian-made Shahed drones were deployed, Ukrainian officials said.
Two floors of a college dormitory were destroyed and set on fire as Russia targeted “densely populated” areas of the north-eastern city, the mayor, Ihor Terekhov, said on Telegram on Tuesday, adding that three explosions had been heard in the city.
The chief of police in Kharkiv, Volodymyr Tymoshko, said there were two night-time strikes – one on the college and one on the city centre. One person was injured in the city centre.
It was unclear whether anyone was in the college building when it was struck, with local media initially saying it was empty and later reporting one person had been inside.