## Assignment Operators in C Operators are a fundamental part of all the computations that computers perform. Today we will learn about one of them known as Assignment Operators in C. Assignment Operators are used to assign values to variables. The most common assignment operator is = . Assignment Operators are Binary Operators. ## Types of Assignment Operators in C Here is a list of the assignment operators that you can find in the C language:

• basic assignment ( = )
• subtraction assignment ( -= )
• addition assignment ( += )
• division assignment ( /= )
• multiplication assignment ( *= )
• modulo assignment ( %= )
• bitwise XOR assignment ( ^= )
• bitwise OR assignment ( |= )
• bitwise AND assignment ( &= )
• bitwise right shift assignment ( >>= )
• bitwise left shift assignment ( <<= )

## Working of Assignment Operators in C

This is the complete list of all assignment operators in C. To read the meaning of operator please keep in mind the above example.

## Example for Assignment Operators in C

Basic assignment ( = ) :

Subtraction assignment ( -= ) :

Addition assignment ( += ) :

Division assignment ( /= ) :

Multiplication assignment ( *= ) :

Modulo assignment ( %= ) :

Bitwise XOR assignment ( ^= ) :

Bitwise OR assignment ( |= ) :

Bitwise AND assignment ( &= ) :

Bitwise right shift assignment ( >>= ) :

Bitwise left shift assignment ( <<= ) :

This is the detailed explanation of all the assignment operators in C that we have. Hopefully, This is clear to you.

## Practice Problems on Assignment Operators in C

1. what will be the value of a after the following code is executed.

A) 10 B) 11 C) 12 D) 15

Answer – C. 12 Explanation: a starts at 10, increases by 5 to 15, then decreases by 3 to 12. So, a is 12.

## 2. After executing the following code, what is the value of num ?

A) 4 B) 8 C) 16 D) 32

Answer: C) 16 Explanation: After right-shifting 8 (binary 1000) by one and then left-shifting the result by two, the value becomes 16 (binary 10000).

Q. How does the /= operator function? Is it a combination of two other operators?

A. The /= operator is a compound assignment operator in C++. It divides the left operand by the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand. It is equivalent to using the / operator and then the = operator separately.

Q. What is the most basic operator among all the assignment operators available in the C language?

A. The most basic assignment operator in the C language is the simple = operator, which is used for assigning a value to a variable.

• Assignment operators are used to assign the result of an expression to a variable.
• There are two types of assignment operators in C. Simple assignment operator and compound assignment operator.
• Compound Assignment operators are easy to use and the left operand of expression needs not to write again and again.
• They work the same way in C++ as in C. • Design Pattern
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## Assignment Operators in C

The following table lists the assignment operators supported by the C language −

Try the following example to understand all the assignment operators available in C −

When you compile and execute the above program, it produces the following result −

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## Assignment Operator in C

Using assignment operators, we can assign value to the variables.

Equality sign (=) is used as an assignment operator in C.

Here, value 5 has assigned to the variable var.

Here, value of a has assigned to the variable b . Now, both a and b will hold value 10 .

Basically, the value of right-side operand will be assigned to the left side operand.

## Pictorial Explanation Sample program.

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## Assignment Operators in C/C++

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• Commonly Asked C Programming Interview Questions | Set 3 Assignment operators are used to assigning value to a variable. The left side operand of the assignment operator is a variable and right side operand of the assignment operator is a value. The value on the right side must be of the same data-type of the variable on the left side otherwise the compiler will raise an error. Different types of assignment operators are shown below:

• “=” : This is the simplest assignment operator. This operator is used to assign the value on the right to the variable on the left. For example: a = 10; b = 20; ch = 'y'; • C-Operators
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## C Assignment Operators

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An assignment operation assigns the value of the right-hand operand to the storage location named by the left-hand operand. Therefore, the left-hand operand of an assignment operation must be a modifiable l-value. After the assignment, an assignment expression has the value of the left operand but isn't an l-value.

assignment-expression :   conditional-expression   unary-expression assignment-operator assignment-expression

assignment-operator : one of   = *= /= %= += -= <<= >>= &= ^= |=

The assignment operators in C can both transform and assign values in a single operation. C provides the following assignment operators:

In assignment, the type of the right-hand value is converted to the type of the left-hand value, and the value is stored in the left operand after the assignment has taken place. The left operand must not be an array, a function, or a constant. The specific conversion path, which depends on the two types, is outlined in detail in Type Conversions .

• Assignment Operators

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In the realm of computer programming , specifically in the C programming language, understanding and utilising assignment operators effectively is essential for developing efficient and well-organised code. The assignment operator in C plays a fundamental role in assigning values to variables, and this introductory piece will elaborate on its definition, usage and importance. Gain insights on different types of assignment operators, such as compound assignment operators and the assignment operator for strings in C. As you delve deeper, practical examples of the assignment operator in C will be provided, enabling you to gain a firm grasp on the concept and apply this knowledge for successful programming endeavours.

## Assignment Operator in C Definition and Usage

The assignment operator in C is denoted with an equal sign (=) and is used to assign a value to a variable. The left operand is the variable, and the right operand is the value or expression to be assigned to that variable.

int main() { int x; x = 5; printf("The value of x is: %d", x); return 0; } ``` In this example, the assignment operator (=) assigns the value 5 to the variable x, which is then printed using the `printf()` function.

## Basics of Assignment Operator in C

It is essential to understand basic usage and functionality of the assignment operator in C: - Variables must be declared before they can be assigned a value. - The data type on the right-hand side of the operator must be compatible with the data type of the variable on the left-hand side. Here are some more examples of using the assignment operator in C:

int a = 10; // Declare and assign in a single line float b = 3.14; char c = 'A';

Additionally, you can use the assignment operator with various arithmetic, relational, and logical operators:

`-=`: Subtract and assign

`*=`: Multiply and assign

`/=`: Divide and assign

For example: int x = 5; x += 2; // Equivalent to x = x + 2; The value of x becomes 7

## Importance of Assignment Operator in Computer Programming

The assignment operator in C plays a crucial role in computer programming. Its significance includes:

- Initialization of variables: The assignment operator is used to give an initial value to a variable, as demonstrated in the earlier examples.

- Modification of variable values: It allows you to change the value of a variable throughout the program. For example, you can use the assignment operator to increment the value of a counter variable in a loop.

- Expressions: The assignment operator is often used in expressions, such as calculating and storing the result of an arithmetic operation.

Example: Using the assignment operator with arithmetic operations:

#include int main() { int a = 10, b = 20, sum; sum = a + b; printf("The sum of a and b is: %d", sum); return 0; }

In this example, the assignment operator is used to store the result of the arithmetic operation `a + b` in the variable `sum`.

In conclusion, the assignment operator in C is an essential tool for computer programming. Understanding its definition, usage, and importance will significantly improve your programming skills and enable you to create more efficient and effective code.

## Different Types of Assignment Operators in C

Compound assignment operators in c.

Compound assignment operators in C combine arithmetic, bit manipulation, or other operations with the basic assignment operator. This enables you to perform certain calculations and assignments of new values to variables in a single statement. Compound assignment operators are efficient, as they perform the operation and the assignment in one step rather than two separate steps. Let's examine the various compound assignment operators in C.

## Addition Assignment Operator in C

The addition assignment operator (+=) in C combines the addition operation with the assignment operator, allowing you to increment the value of a variable by a specified amount. It essentially means "add the value of the right-hand side of the operator to the value of the variable on the left-hand side and then assign the new value to the variable". The general syntax for the addition assignment operator in C is: variable += value;

- Reduces the amount of code you need: It is more concise and easier to read.

- Increases efficiency: It is faster because it performs the operation and assignment in one step.

Here's an example of the addition assignment operator in C: #include int main() { int a = 5; a += 3; // Equivalent to a = a + 3; The value of a becomes 8 printf("The value of a after addition assignment: %d, a); return 0; }

Compound assignment operators also include subtraction (-=), multiplication (*=), division (/=), modulo (%=), and bitwise operations like AND (&=), OR (|=), and XOR (^=). Their usage is similar to the addition assignment operator in C.

## Assignment Operator for String in C

In C programming, strings are arrays of characters, and dealing with strings requires a careful approach. Direct assignment of a string using the assignment operator (=) is not possible, because arrays cannot be assigned using this operator. To assign a string to a character array, you need to use specific functions provided by the C language or develop your own custom function. Here are two commonly used methods for assigning a string to a character array:

1. Using the `strcpy()` function:

In this example, the `strcpy()` function from the `string.h` library is used to copy the contents of the `source` string into the `destination` character array.

2. Custom assignment function:

In this example, a custom function called `assignString()` is created to assign strings. It iterates through the characters of the `source` string, assigns each character to the corresponding element in the `destination` character array, and stops when it encounters the null character ('\0') at the end of the source string. Understanding assignment operators in C and the various types of assignment operators can help you write more efficient and effective code. It also enables you to work effectively with different data types, including strings and arrays of characters, which are essential for creating powerful and dynamic software applications. ## Practical Examples of Assignment Operator in C

In this section, we will explore some practical examples of the assignment operator in C. Examples will cover simple assignments and discuss usage scenarios for compound assignment operators, as well as demonstrating the implementation of the assignment operator for strings in C.

## Assignment Operator in C Example: Simple Assignments

Simple assignment operations in C involve assigning a single value to a variable. Here are some examples of simple assignment operations:

1. Assigning an integer value to a variable: int age = 25;

2. Assigning a floating-point value to a variable: float salary = 50000.75;

3. Assigning a character value to a variable: char grade = 'A';

4. Swapping the values of two variables:

In this swapping example, the assignment operator is used to temporarily store the value of one variable and then exchange the values of two variables.

## Usage Scenarios for Compound Assignment Operators

Compound assignment operators in C provide shorthand ways of updating the values of variables with arithmetic, bitwise, or other operations. Here are some common usage scenarios for compound assignment operators:

1. Incrementing a counter variable in a loop: for(int i = 0; i < 10; i += 2) { printf("%d ", i); } Here, the addition assignment operator (+=) is used within a `for` loop to increment the counter variable `i` by 2 at each iteration.

2. Accumulating the sum of elements in an array: #include int main() { int array[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; int sum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) { sum += array[i]; // Equivalent to sum = sum + array[i]; } printf("Sum of array elements: %d", sum); return 0; } In this example, the addition assignment operator (+=) is used to accumulate the sum of the array elements.

3. Calculating the product of two numbers using bitwise operations:

I n this example, the bitwise AND operation is combined with the addition assignment operator (+=) along with bitwise shift and compound assignment operators to perform multiplication without using the arithmetic `*` operator.

## Implementing Assignment Operator for String in C with Examples

As discussed earlier, assigning strings in C requires a different approach, as the assignment operator (=) cannot be used directly. Here are some practical examples that demonstrate how to implement the assignment operator for strings in C:

1. Using the `strcpy()` function from the `string.h` library:

2. Defining a custom function to assign strings, which takes two character pointers as arguments:

These examples showcase the implementation of the assignment operator for strings in C, enabling you to effectively manipulate and work with strings in your C programs. By using built-in C functions or defining your own custom functions, you can assign strings to character arrays, which allow you to perform various operations on strings, such as concatenation, comparison, substring search, and more.

## Assignment Operator in C - Key takeaways

Assignment Operator in C: represented by the equal sign (=), assigns a value to a variable

Compound assignment operators in C: combine arithmetic or bitwise operations with the assignment operator, such as +=, -=, and *=

Addition assignment operator in C: represented by (+=), adds a value to an existing variable and assigns the new value

Assignment operator for string in C: requires specific functions like strcpy() or custom functions, as direct assignment with = is not possible

Assignment Operator in C example: int x = 5; assigns the value 5 to the variable x

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What symbol is used as the assignment operator in C programming?

An equal sign (=)

Show question

What is the syntax for the addition assignment operator in C?

variable += value;

What is the compound assignment operator for multiplication in C?

Why is direct assignment of a string using the assignment operator (=) not possible in C?

Arrays cannot be assigned using the assignment operator.

How can a string be assigned to a character array using the `strcpy()` function in C?

GetString(destination, source);

Which function or method can be used to assign a string to a character array in C programming?

Using the `strcpy()` function or a custom assignment function.

What is an example of a simple assignment operator in C?

int age = 25;

How do you swap values of two variables in C using the assignment operator?

Use a temporary variable: temp = a; a = b; b = temp;

What is the usage of compound assignment operators in C?

They provide shorthand ways to update variable values with arithmetic, bitwise, or other operations.

How can you assign a string using the assignment operator in C?

Use `strcpy()` function from `string.h` library or define a custom function to assign strings.

How do you implement a custom function to assign strings in C?

Define the function with two character pointers as arguments and use a while loop to copy characters: `while ((*dest++ = *src++) != '\0');`

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## C Programming Operators

An operator is a symbol that operates on a value or a variable. For example: + is an operator to perform addition.

C has a wide range of operators to perform various operations.

## C Arithmetic Operators

An arithmetic operator performs mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division etc on numerical values (constants and variables).

## Example 1: Arithmetic Operators

The operators + , - and * computes addition, subtraction, and multiplication respectively as you might have expected.

In normal calculation, 9/4 = 2.25 . However, the output is 2 in the program.

It is because both the variables a and b are integers. Hence, the output is also an integer. The compiler neglects the term after the decimal point and shows answer 2 instead of 2.25 .

The modulo operator % computes the remainder. When a=9 is divided by b=4 , the remainder is 1 . The % operator can only be used with integers.

Suppose a = 5.0 , b = 2.0 , c = 5 and d = 2 . Then in C programming,

## C Increment and Decrement Operators

C programming has two operators increment ++ and decrement -- to change the value of an operand (constant or variable) by 1.

Increment ++ increases the value by 1 whereas decrement -- decreases the value by 1. These two operators are unary operators, meaning they only operate on a single operand.

## Example 2: Increment and Decrement Operators

Here, the operators ++ and -- are used as prefixes. These two operators can also be used as postfixes like a++ and a-- . Visit this page to learn more about how increment and decrement operators work when used as postfix .

## C Assignment Operators

An assignment operator is used for assigning a value to a variable. The most common assignment operator is =

## Example 3: Assignment Operators

C relational operators.

A relational operator checks the relationship between two operands. If the relation is true, it returns 1; if the relation is false, it returns value 0.

Relational operators are used in decision making and loops .

## Example 4: Relational Operators

C logical operators.

An expression containing logical operator returns either 0 or 1 depending upon whether expression results true or false. Logical operators are commonly used in decision making in C programming .

## Example 5: Logical Operators

Explanation of logical operator program

• (a == b) && (c > 5) evaluates to 1 because both operands (a == b) and (c > b) is 1 (true).
• (a == b) && (c < b) evaluates to 0 because operand (c < b) is 0 (false).
• (a == b) || (c < b) evaluates to 1 because (a = b) is 1 (true).
• (a != b) || (c < b) evaluates to 0 because both operand (a != b) and (c < b) are 0 (false).
• !(a != b) evaluates to 1 because operand (a != b) is 0 (false). Hence, !(a != b) is 1 (true).
• !(a == b) evaluates to 0 because (a == b) is 1 (true). Hence, !(a == b) is 0 (false).

## C Bitwise Operators

During computation, mathematical operations like: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc are converted to bit-level which makes processing faster and saves power.

Bitwise operators are used in C programming to perform bit-level operations.

## Other Operators

Comma operator.

Comma operators are used to link related expressions together. For example:

## The sizeof operator

The sizeof is a unary operator that returns the size of data (constants, variables, array, structure, etc).

## Example 6: sizeof Operator

Other operators such as ternary operator ?: , reference operator & , dereference operator * and member selection operator  ->  will be discussed in later tutorials.

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Assignment operator in c. Last Updated on June 23, 2023 by Prepbytes This type of operator is employed for transforming and assigning values to variables within an operation. In an assignment operation, the right side represents a value, while the left side corresponds to a variable. It is essential that the value on the right side has the same data type as the variable on the left side. If this requirement is not fulfilled, the compiler will issue an error.

## What is Assignment Operator in C language?

In C, the assignment operator serves the purpose of assigning a value to a variable. It is denoted by the equals sign (=) and plays a vital role in storing data within variables for further utilization in code. When using the assignment operator, the value present on the right-hand side is assigned to the variable on the left-hand side. This fundamental operation allows developers to store and manipulate data effectively throughout their programs.

## Example of Assignment Operator in C

For example, consider the following line of code:

## Types of Assignment Operators in C

Here is a list of the assignment operators that you can find in the C language:

Simple assignment operator (=): This is the basic assignment operator, which assigns the value on the right-hand side to the variable on the left-hand side.

Addition assignment operator (+=): This operator adds the value on the right-hand side to the variable on the left-hand side and assigns the result back to the variable.

x += 3; // Equivalent to x = x + 3; (adds 3 to the current value of "x" and assigns the result back to "x")

Subtraction assignment operator (-=): This operator subtracts the value on the right-hand side from the variable on the left-hand side and assigns the result back to the variable.

x -= 4; // Equivalent to x = x – 4; (subtracts 4 from the current value of "x" and assigns the result back to "x")

* Multiplication assignment operator ( =):** This operator multiplies the value on the right-hand side with the variable on the left-hand side and assigns the result back to the variable.

x = 2; // Equivalent to x = x 2; (multiplies the current value of "x" by 2 and assigns the result back to "x")

Division assignment operator (/=): This operator divides the variable on the left-hand side by the value on the right-hand side and assigns the result back to the variable.

x /= 2; // Equivalent to x = x / 2; (divides the current value of "x" by 2 and assigns the result back to "x")

Bitwise AND assignment (&=): The bitwise AND assignment operator "&=" performs a bitwise AND operation between the value on the left-hand side and the value on the right-hand side. It then assigns the result back to the left-hand side variable.

x &= 3; // Binary: 0011 // After bitwise AND assignment: x = 1 (Binary: 0001)

Bitwise OR assignment (|=): The bitwise OR assignment operator "|=" performs a bitwise OR operation between the value on the left-hand side and the value on the right-hand side. It then assigns the result back to the left-hand side variable.

x |= 3; // Binary: 0011 // After bitwise OR assignment: x = 7 (Binary: 0111)

Bitwise XOR assignment (^=): The bitwise XOR assignment operator "^=" performs a bitwise XOR operation between the value on the left-hand side and the value on the right-hand side. It then assigns the result back to the left-hand side variable.

x ^= 3; // Binary: 0011 // After bitwise XOR assignment: x = 6 (Binary: 0110)

Left shift assignment (<<=): The left shift assignment operator "<<=" shifts the bits of the value on the left-hand side to the left by the number of positions specified by the value on the right-hand side. It then assigns the result back to the left-hand side variable.

x <<= 2; // Binary: 010100 (Shifted left by 2 positions) // After left shift assignment: x = 20 (Binary: 10100)

Right shift assignment (>>=): The right shift assignment operator ">>=" shifts the bits of the value on the left-hand side to the right by the number of positions specified by the value on the right-hand side. It then assigns the result back to the left-hand side variable.

x >>= 2; // Binary: 101 (Shifted right by 2 positions) // After right shift assignment: x = 5 (Binary: 101)

Conclusion The assignment operator in C, denoted by the equals sign (=), is used to assign a value to a variable. It is a fundamental operation that allows programmers to store data in variables for further use in their code. In addition to the simple assignment operator, C provides compound assignment operators that combine arithmetic or bitwise operations with assignment, allowing for concise and efficient code.

## FAQs related to Assignment Operator in C

Q1. Can I assign a value of one data type to a variable of another data type? In most cases, assigning a value of one data type to a variable of another data type will result in a warning or error from the compiler. It is generally recommended to assign values of compatible data types to variables.

Q2. What is the difference between the assignment operator (=) and the comparison operator (==)? The assignment operator (=) is used to assign a value to a variable, while the comparison operator (==) is used to check if two values are equal. It is important not to confuse these two operators.

Q3. Can I use multiple assignment operators in a single statement? No, it is not possible to use multiple assignment operators in a single statement. Each assignment operator should be used separately for assigning values to different variables.

Q4. Are there any limitations on the right-hand side value of the assignment operator? The right-hand side value of the assignment operator should be compatible with the data type of the left-hand side variable. If the data types are not compatible, it may lead to unexpected behavior or compiler errors.

Q5. Can I assign the result of an expression to a variable using the assignment operator? Yes, it is possible to assign the result of an expression to a variable using the assignment operator. For example, x = y + z; assigns the sum of y and z to the variable x.

Q6. What happens if I assign a value to an uninitialized variable? Assigning a value to an uninitialized variable will initialize it with the assigned value. However, it is considered good practice to explicitly initialize variables before using them to avoid potential bugs or unintended behavior.

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