Consent to Assignment: Everything You Need to Know
Consent to assignment refers to allowing a party of a contract (the assignor) to assign a contract and move the obligations to another party (the assignee). 3 min read
Consent to assignment refers to allowing a party of a contract to assign a contract and move the obligations to another party. The party of the existing contract, known as the assignor, will pass on the contract to another party, known as the assignee. The goal is for the assignee to take over the rights and obligations of the contract. For a contract to be assigned, the other party must be aware of what is happening.
The assignment of a contract differs depending on the type of contract and the language in the original agreement. Some contracts contain a clause that doesn't allow assignment at all, while other contracts have clauses that require the other party to consent before assignment can be finalized.
Consider the following scenario. A business owner contracts with a computer company to have a processor delivered every time a new model is released. The computer company assigns the business owner's contract to another provider. As long as the business owner is aware of the changes and still receives the processors as scheduled, his contract is now with the new computer company.
However, assigning a contract doesn't always exempt the assignor from their duties and responsibilities. Some contracts include a clause that states that even if the agreement is assigned to another party, the original parties guarantee that the terms of the contract will be fulfilled.
There are a number of situations where a contract assignment won't be enforced , including:
- The contract has an anti-assignment clause that can stop or invalidate any assignments.
- The assignment changes the nature of the contract. An assignment that changes what is expected or impacts the performance of the contract isn't allowed. This also applies if the assignment lowers the value one party will receive or adds risk to the deal that the other party didn't originally agree to.
- The assignment is against the law. In some cases, laws or public policies don't allow assignment. Many states forbid employees to assign future wages. The federal government doesn't allow the assignment of particular claims against the government. Some assignments violate public policy. For example, a personal injury claim cannot be assigned because it could lead to litigation against a party who was not responsible for the injury.
Delegation vs. Assignment
It is common for a party to sign a contract and have someone else actually fulfill his duties and do the work required by the contract. However, some contracts can't be delegated, such as when a party agrees to service done by a particular person or company. If a company contracted with Oprah Winfrey to be a keynote speaker, Oprah wouldn't be permitted to delegate her performance duties to anyone else.
If both parties agree that the work can't be delegated, they should include specific language in the original contract. This can be as simple as a clause that states, “Neither party shall delegate or assign its rights.” Both parties should agree to this clause.
How to Assign a Contract
Assigning a contract is a three-step process. First, check to see if the contract has an anti-assignment clause or if there are limitations around assignments. Sometimes clauses are straightforward with language like, “This agreement may not be assigned,” and while other times, the language is less obvious and hidden in another clause. If there is language in the contract that states it can't be assigned, the other party must consent to an assignment before you can proceed.
Second, the parties must execute an assignment . Create an agreement that transfers the rights and obligations of one party to the assignee.
Third, notify the other party of the contract. Once the contract rights have been assigned to the new party, you should notify the other party of the original contract. Providing written notice removes you from being responsible for any part of the contract unless there is language in the contract that says differently or the assignment is illegal.
As you are negotiating and writing a contract, consider whether you want the contract to be able to be assigned. If you don't want assignment to be a legally viable option, that needs to be clearly stated in the contract.
If you need help with consent to assignment, you can post your legal need on UpCounsel's marketplace. UpCounsel accepts only the top 5 percent of lawyers to its site. Lawyers on UpCounsel come from law schools such as Harvard Law and Yale Law and average 14 years of legal experience, including work with or on behalf of companies like Google, Menlo Ventures, and Airbnb.
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- Assignment Law
- Legal Assignment
- Assignment Contract Law
- Assignment of Rights and Obligations Under a Contract
- Assignment of Contract Rights
- Assignability Of Contracts
- Assignment of Rights Example
- Assignment Legal Definition
- What Is the Definition of Assigns
- Assignment Of Contracts
Request for Consent to Assignment of Contract Template
Consent to assignment refers to allowing a party of a contract to assign a contract and move the obligations to another party . The party of the existing contract, known as the assignor, will pass on the contract to another party, known as the assignee.
REQUEST FOR CONSENT TO ASSIGNMENT OF CONTRACT
[ NAME OF OTHER PARTY TO AGREEMENT ]
[ OTHER PARTY’S ADDRESS ]
Re: Request to Assign [ TYPE OF CONTRACT ] Contract
Dear [ NAME ] ,
As you are aware, [ OTHER PARTY COMPANY ] entered into a [ TYPE OF CONTRACT ] contract with [ REQUESTING PARTY COMPANY ] on or around [ DATE ] (the “Contract”). The Contract term runs through [ DATE ] and both parties are obligated to honor the terms of the Contract until that date. Moreover, according to Section [ SECTION NUMBER ] of the Contract, we cannot assign our rights under the Contract without your consent.
Recently, [ EXPLAIN CIRCUMSTANCES GIVING RISE TO ASSIGNMENT ] . As such, it would be beneficial for us to be able to assign our rights under the Contract to [ NAME OF THIRD PARTY ASSIGNEE ] (the “Assignee”). We also believe that assignment of the Contract to the Assignee is of benefit to [ OTHER PARTY COMPANY ] because [ LIST REASONS BENEFICIAL TO OTHER PARTY COMPANY ] .
In light of the above, we kindly request your written consent to assign any and all rights of ours under the Contract to the above-referenced Assignee.
[ In consideration of your consent, we are willing to offer: [( i) payment in the amount of [ AMOUNT ] ;] and [( ii) a guarantee of the performance of the Assignee under the Contract. ]]
With your signature below, you will consent to our assignment of the Contract to the Assignee. If you should have any questions regarding this matter, or would like to speak directly to the Assignee before making a decision, please do not hesitate to reach out to me directly at [ CONTACT INFORMATION ] .
[ NAME OF REQUESTING PARTY ]
On behalf of [OTHER PARTY COMPANY] , I hereby consent to the assignment of the Contract in accordance with the above:
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- assignments basic law
Assignments: The Basic Law
The assignment of a right or obligation is a common contractual event under the law and the right to assign (or prohibition against assignments) is found in the majority of agreements, leases and business structural documents created in the United States.
As with many terms commonly used, people are familiar with the term but often are not aware or fully aware of what the terms entail. The concept of assignment of rights and obligations is one of those simple concepts with wide ranging ramifications in the contractual and business context and the law imposes severe restrictions on the validity and effect of assignment in many instances. Clear contractual provisions concerning assignments and rights should be in every document and structure created and this article will outline why such drafting is essential for the creation of appropriate and effective contracts and structures.
The reader should first read the article on Limited Liability Entities in the United States and Contracts since the information in those articles will be assumed in this article.
Basic Definitions and Concepts:
An assignment is the transfer of rights held by one party called the “assignor” to another party called the “assignee.” The legal nature of the assignment and the contractual terms of the agreement between the parties determines some additional rights and liabilities that accompany the assignment. The assignment of rights under a contract usually completely transfers the rights to the assignee to receive the benefits accruing under the contract. Ordinarily, the term assignment is limited to the transfer of rights that are intangible, like contractual rights and rights connected with property. Merchants Service Co. v. Small Claims Court , 35 Cal. 2d 109, 113-114 (Cal. 1950).
An assignment will generally be permitted under the law unless there is an express prohibition against assignment in the underlying contract or lease. Where assignments are permitted, the assignor need not consult the other party to the contract but may merely assign the rights at that time. However, an assignment cannot have any adverse effect on the duties of the other party to the contract, nor can it diminish the chance of the other party receiving complete performance. The assignor normally remains liable unless there is an agreement to the contrary by the other party to the contract.
The effect of a valid assignment is to remove privity between the assignor and the obligor and create privity between the obligor and the assignee. Privity is usually defined as a direct and immediate contractual relationship. See Merchants case above.
Further, for the assignment to be effective in most jurisdictions, it must occur in the present. One does not normally assign a future right; the assignment vests immediate rights and obligations.
No specific language is required to create an assignment so long as the assignor makes clear his/her intent to assign identified contractual rights to the assignee. Since expensive litigation can erupt from ambiguous or vague language, obtaining the correct verbiage is vital. An agreement must manifest the intent to transfer rights and can either be oral or in writing and the rights assigned must be certain.
Note that an assignment of an interest is the transfer of some identifiable property, claim, or right from the assignor to the assignee. The assignment operates to transfer to the assignee all of the rights, title, or interest of the assignor in the thing assigned. A transfer of all rights, title, and interests conveys everything that the assignor owned in the thing assigned and the assignee stands in the shoes of the assignor. Knott v. McDonald’s Corp ., 985 F. Supp. 1222 (N.D. Cal. 1997)
The parties must intend to effectuate an assignment at the time of the transfer, although no particular language or procedure is necessary. As long ago as the case of National Reserve Co. v. Metropolitan Trust Co ., 17 Cal. 2d 827 (Cal. 1941), the court held that in determining what rights or interests pass under an assignment, the intention of the parties as manifested in the instrument is controlling.
The intent of the parties to an assignment is a question of fact to be derived not only from the instrument executed by the parties but also from the surrounding circumstances. When there is no writing to evidence the intention to transfer some identifiable property, claim, or right, it is necessary to scrutinize the surrounding circumstances and parties’ acts to ascertain their intentions. Strosberg v. Brauvin Realty Servs., 295 Ill. App. 3d 17 (Ill. App. Ct. 1st Dist. 1998)
The general rule applicable to assignments of choses in action is that an assignment, unless there is a contract to the contrary, carries with it all securities held by the assignor as collateral to the claim and all rights incidental thereto and vests in the assignee the equitable title to such collateral securities and incidental rights. An unqualified assignment of a contract or chose in action, however, with no indication of the intent of the parties, vests in the assignee the assigned contract or chose and all rights and remedies incidental thereto.
More examples: In Strosberg v. Brauvin Realty Servs ., 295 Ill. App. 3d 17 (Ill. App. Ct. 1st Dist. 1998), the court held that the assignee of a party to a subordination agreement is entitled to the benefits and is subject to the burdens of the agreement. In Florida E. C. R. Co. v. Eno , 99 Fla. 887 (Fla. 1930), the court held that the mere assignment of all sums due in and of itself creates no different or other liability of the owner to the assignee than that which existed from the owner to the assignor.
And note that even though an assignment vests in the assignee all rights, remedies, and contingent benefits which are incidental to the thing assigned, those which are personal to the assignor and for his sole benefit are not assigned. Rasp v. Hidden Valley Lake, Inc ., 519 N.E.2d 153, 158 (Ind. Ct. App. 1988). Thus, if the underlying agreement provides that a service can only be provided to X, X cannot assign that right to Y.
Novation Compared to Assignment:
Although the difference between a novation and an assignment may appear narrow, it is an essential one. “Novation is a act whereby one party transfers all its obligations and benefits under a contract to a third party.” In a novation, a third party successfully substitutes the original party as a party to the contract. “When a contract is novated, the other contracting party must be left in the same position he was in prior to the novation being made.”
A sublease is the transfer when a tenant retains some right of reentry onto the leased premises. However, if the tenant transfers the entire leasehold estate, retaining no right of reentry or other reversionary interest, then the transfer is an assignment. The assignor is normally also removed from liability to the landlord only if the landlord consents or allowed that right in the lease. In a sublease, the original tenant is not released from the obligations of the original lease.
An equitable assignment is one in which one has a future interest and is not valid at law but valid in a court of equity. In National Bank of Republic v. United Sec. Life Ins. & Trust Co. , 17 App. D.C. 112 (D.C. Cir. 1900), the court held that to constitute an equitable assignment of a chose in action, the following has to occur generally: anything said written or done, in pursuance of an agreement and for valuable consideration, or in consideration of an antecedent debt, to place a chose in action or fund out of the control of the owner, and appropriate it to or in favor of another person, amounts to an equitable assignment. Thus, an agreement, between a debtor and a creditor, that the debt shall be paid out of a specific fund going to the debtor may operate as an equitable assignment.
In Egyptian Navigation Co. v. Baker Invs. Corp. , 2008 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 30804 (S.D.N.Y. Apr. 14, 2008), the court stated that an equitable assignment occurs under English law when an assignor, with an intent to transfer his/her right to a chose in action, informs the assignee about the right so transferred.
An executory agreement or a declaration of trust are also equitable assignments if unenforceable as assignments by a court of law but enforceable by a court of equity exercising sound discretion according to the circumstances of the case. Since California combines courts of equity and courts of law, the same court would hear arguments as to whether an equitable assignment had occurred. Quite often, such relief is granted to avoid fraud or unjust enrichment.
Note that obtaining an assignment through fraudulent means invalidates the assignment. Fraud destroys the validity of everything into which it enters. It vitiates the most solemn contracts, documents, and even judgments. Walker v. Rich , 79 Cal. App. 139 (Cal. App. 1926). If an assignment is made with the fraudulent intent to delay, hinder, and defraud creditors, then it is void as fraudulent in fact. See our article on Transfers to Defraud Creditors .
But note that the motives that prompted an assignor to make the transfer will be considered as immaterial and will constitute no defense to an action by the assignee, if an assignment is considered as valid in all other respects.
Enforceability of Assignments:
Whether a right under a contract is capable of being transferred is determined by the law of the place where the contract was entered into. The validity and effect of an assignment is determined by the law of the place of assignment. The validity of an assignment of a contractual right is governed by the law of the state with the most significant relationship to the assignment and the parties.
In some jurisdictions, the traditional conflict of laws rules governing assignments has been rejected and the law of the place having the most significant contacts with the assignment applies. In Downs v. American Mut. Liability Ins. Co ., 14 N.Y.2d 266 (N.Y. 1964), a wife and her husband separated and the wife obtained a judgment of separation from the husband in New York. The judgment required the husband to pay a certain yearly sum to the wife. The husband assigned 50 percent of his future salary, wages, and earnings to the wife. The agreement authorized the employer to make such payments to the wife.
After the husband moved from New York, the wife learned that he was employed by an employer in Massachusetts. She sent the proper notice and demanded payment under the agreement. The employer refused and the wife brought an action for enforcement. The court observed that Massachusetts did not prohibit assignment of the husband’s wages. Moreover, Massachusetts law was not controlling because New York had the most significant relationship with the assignment. Therefore, the court ruled in favor of the wife.
Therefore, the validity of an assignment is determined by looking to the law of the forum with the most significant relationship to the assignment itself. To determine the applicable law of assignments, the court must look to the law of the state which is most significantly related to the principal issue before it.
Assignment of Contractual Rights:
Generally, the law allows the assignment of a contractual right unless the substitution of rights would materially change the duty of the obligor, materially increase the burden or risk imposed on the obligor by the contract, materially impair the chance of obtaining return performance, or materially reduce the value of the performance to the obligor. Restat 2d of Contracts, § 317(2)(a). This presumes that the underlying agreement is silent on the right to assign.
If the contract specifically precludes assignment, the contractual right is not assignable. Whether a contract is assignable is a matter of contractual intent and one must look to the language used by the parties to discern that intent.
In the absence of an express provision to the contrary, the rights and duties under a bilateral executory contract that does not involve personal skill, trust, or confidence may be assigned without the consent of the other party. But note that an assignment is invalid if it would materially alter the other party’s duties and responsibilities. Once an assignment is effective, the assignee stands in the shoes of the assignor and assumes all of assignor’s rights. Hence, after a valid assignment, the assignor’s right to performance is extinguished, transferred to assignee, and the assignee possesses the same rights, benefits, and remedies assignor once possessed. Robert Lamb Hart Planners & Architects v. Evergreen, Ltd. , 787 F. Supp. 753 (S.D. Ohio 1992).
On the other hand, an assignee’s right against the obligor is subject to “all of the limitations of the assignor’s right, all defenses thereto, and all set-offs and counterclaims which would have been available against the assignor had there been no assignment, provided that these defenses and set-offs are based on facts existing at the time of the assignment.” See Robert Lamb , case, above.
The power of the contract to restrict assignment is broad. Usually, contractual provisions that restrict assignment of the contract without the consent of the obligor are valid and enforceable, even when there is statutory authorization for the assignment. The restriction of the power to assign is often ineffective unless the restriction is expressly and precisely stated. Anti-assignment clauses are effective only if they contain clear, unambiguous language of prohibition. Anti-assignment clauses protect only the obligor and do not affect the transaction between the assignee and assignor.
Usually, a prohibition against the assignment of a contract does not prevent an assignment of the right to receive payments due, unless circumstances indicate the contrary. Moreover, the contracting parties cannot, by a mere non-assignment provision, prevent the effectual alienation of the right to money which becomes due under the contract.
A contract provision prohibiting or restricting an assignment may be waived, or a party may so act as to be estopped from objecting to the assignment, such as by effectively ratifying the assignment. The power to void an assignment made in violation of an anti-assignment clause may be waived either before or after the assignment. See our article on Contracts.
Noncompete Clauses and Assignments:
Of critical import to most buyers of businesses is the ability to ensure that key employees of the business being purchased cannot start a competing company. Some states strictly limit such clauses, some do allow them. California does restrict noncompete clauses, only allowing them under certain circumstances. A common question in those states that do allow them is whether such rights can be assigned to a new party, such as the buyer of the buyer.
A covenant not to compete, also called a non-competitive clause, is a formal agreement prohibiting one party from performing similar work or business within a designated area for a specified amount of time. This type of clause is generally included in contracts between employer and employee and contracts between buyer and seller of a business.
Many workers sign a covenant not to compete as part of the paperwork required for employment. It may be a separate document similar to a non-disclosure agreement, or buried within a number of other clauses in a contract. A covenant not to compete is generally legal and enforceable, although there are some exceptions and restrictions.
Whenever a company recruits skilled employees, it invests a significant amount of time and training. For example, it often takes years before a research chemist or a design engineer develops a workable knowledge of a company’s product line, including trade secrets and highly sensitive information. Once an employee gains this knowledge and experience, however, all sorts of things can happen. The employee could work for the company until retirement, accept a better offer from a competing company or start up his or her own business.
A covenant not to compete may cover a number of potential issues between employers and former employees. Many companies spend years developing a local base of customers or clients. It is important that this customer base not fall into the hands of local competitors. When an employee signs a covenant not to compete, he or she usually agrees not to use insider knowledge of the company’s customer base to disadvantage the company. The covenant not to compete often defines a broad geographical area considered off-limits to former employees, possibly tens or hundreds of miles.
Another area of concern covered by a covenant not to compete is a potential ‘brain drain’. Some high-level former employees may seek to recruit others from the same company to create new competition. Retention of employees, especially those with unique skills or proprietary knowledge, is vital for most companies, so a covenant not to compete may spell out definite restrictions on the hiring or recruiting of employees.
A covenant not to compete may also define a specific amount of time before a former employee can seek employment in a similar field. Many companies offer a substantial severance package to make sure former employees are financially solvent until the terms of the covenant not to compete have been met.
Because the use of a covenant not to compete can be controversial, a handful of states, including California, have largely banned this type of contractual language. The legal enforcement of these agreements falls on individual states, and many have sided with the employee during arbitration or litigation. A covenant not to compete must be reasonable and specific, with defined time periods and coverage areas. If the agreement gives the company too much power over former employees or is ambiguous, state courts may declare it to be overbroad and therefore unenforceable. In such case, the employee would be free to pursue any employment opportunity, including working for a direct competitor or starting up a new company of his or her own.
It has been held that an employee’s covenant not to compete is assignable where one business is transferred to another, that a merger does not constitute an assignment of a covenant not to compete, and that a covenant not to compete is enforceable by a successor to the employer where the assignment does not create an added burden of employment or other disadvantage to the employee. However, in some states such as Hawaii, it has also been held that a covenant not to compete is not assignable and under various statutes for various reasons that such covenants are not enforceable against an employee by a successor to the employer. Hawaii v. Gannett Pac. Corp. , 99 F. Supp. 2d 1241 (D. Haw. 1999)
It is vital to obtain the relevant law of the applicable state before drafting or attempting to enforce assignment rights in this particular area.
In the current business world of fast changing structures, agreements, employees and projects, the ability to assign rights and obligations is essential to allow flexibility and adjustment to new situations. Conversely, the ability to hold a contracting party into the deal may be essential for the future of a party. Thus, the law of assignments and the restriction on same is a critical aspect of every agreement and every structure. This basic provision is often glanced at by the contracting parties, or scribbled into the deal at the last minute but can easily become the most vital part of the transaction.
As an example, one client of ours came into the office outraged that his co venturer on a sizable exporting agreement, who had excellent connections in Brazil, had elected to pursue another venture instead and assigned the agreement to a party unknown to our client and without the business contacts our client considered vital. When we examined the handwritten agreement our client had drafted in a restaurant in Sao Paolo, we discovered there was no restriction on assignment whatsoever…our client had not even considered that right when drafting the agreement after a full day of work.
One choses who one does business with carefully…to ensure that one’s choice remains the party on the other side of the contract, one must master the ability to negotiate proper assignment provisions.
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Understanding an assignment and assumption agreement
Need to assign your rights and duties under a contract? Learn more about the basics of an assignment and assumption agreement.
updated October 17, 2023 · 3min read
The assignment and assumption agreement
The basics of assignment and assumption, filling in the assignment and assumption agreement.
While every business should try its best to meet its contractual obligations, changes in circumstance can happen that could necessitate transferring your rights and duties under a contract to another party who would be better able to meet those obligations.
If you find yourself in such a situation, and your contract provides for the possibility of assignment, an assignment and assumption agreement can be a good option for preserving your relationship with the party you initially contracted with, while at the same time enabling you to pass on your contractual rights and duties to a third party.
An assignment and assumption agreement is used after a contract is signed, in order to transfer one of the contracting party's rights and obligations to a third party who was not originally a party to the contract. The party making the assignment is called the assignor, while the third party accepting the assignment is known as the assignee.
In order for an assignment and assumption agreement to be valid, the following criteria need to be met:
- The initial contract must provide for the possibility of assignment by one of the initial contracting parties.
- The assignor must agree to assign their rights and duties under the contract to the assignee.
- The assignee must agree to accept, or "assume," those contractual rights and duties.
- The other party to the initial contract must consent to the transfer of rights and obligations to the assignee.
A standard assignment and assumption contract is often a good starting point if you need to enter into an assignment and assumption agreement. However, for more complex situations, such as an assignment and amendment agreement in which several of the initial contract terms will be modified, or where only some, but not all, rights and duties will be assigned, it's a good idea to retain the services of an attorney who can help you draft an agreement that will meet all your needs.
When you're ready to enter into an assignment and assumption agreement, it's a good idea to have a firm grasp of the basics of assignment:
- First, carefully read and understand the assignment and assumption provision in the initial contract. Contracts vary widely in their language on this topic, and each contract will have specific criteria that must be met in order for a valid assignment of rights to take place.
- All parties to the agreement should carefully review the document to make sure they each know what they're agreeing to, and to help ensure that all important terms and conditions have been addressed in the agreement.
- Until the agreement is signed by all the parties involved, the assignor will still be obligated for all responsibilities stated in the initial contract. If you are the assignor, you need to ensure that you continue with business as usual until the assignment and assumption agreement has been properly executed.
Unless you're dealing with a complex assignment situation, working with a template often is a good way to begin drafting an assignment and assumption agreement that will meet your needs. Generally speaking, your agreement should include the following information:
- Identification of the existing agreement, including details such as the date it was signed and the parties involved, and the parties' rights to assign under this initial agreement
- The effective date of the assignment and assumption agreement
- Identification of the party making the assignment (the assignor), and a statement of their desire to assign their rights under the initial contract
- Identification of the third party accepting the assignment (the assignee), and a statement of their acceptance of the assignment
- Identification of the other initial party to the contract, and a statement of their consent to the assignment and assumption agreement
- A section stating that the initial contract is continued; meaning, that, other than the change to the parties involved, all terms and conditions in the original contract stay the same
In addition to these sections that are specific to an assignment and assumption agreement, your contract should also include standard contract language, such as clauses about indemnification, future amendments, and governing law.
Sometimes circumstances change, and as a business owner you may find yourself needing to assign your rights and duties under a contract to another party. A properly drafted assignment and assumption agreement can help you make the transfer smoothly while, at the same time, preserving the cordiality of your initial business relationship under the original contract.
by Belle Wong, J.D.
Belle Wong, is a freelance writer specializing in small business, personal finance, banking, and tech/SAAS. She ...
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Request for Consent to Assignment of Contract | Practical Law
Request for Consent to Assignment of Contract
Practical law standard document 5-529-2265 (approx. 12 pages).
Assignment is a legal term whereby an individual, the “assignor,” transfers rights, property, or other benefits to another known as the “ assignee .” This concept is used in both contract and property law. The term can refer to either the act of transfer or the rights /property/benefits being transferred.
Under contract law, assignment of a contract is both: (1) an assignment of rights; and (2) a delegation of duties , in the absence of evidence otherwise. For example, if A contracts with B to teach B guitar for $50, A can assign this contract to C. That is, this assignment is both: (1) an assignment of A’s rights under the contract to the $50; and (2) a delegation of A’s duty to teach guitar to C. In this example, A is both the “assignor” and the “delegee” who d elegates the duties to another (C), C is known as the “ obligor ” who must perform the obligations to the assignee , and B is the “ assignee ” who is owed duties and is liable to the “ obligor ”.
(1) Assignment of Rights/Duties Under Contract Law
There are a few notable rules regarding assignments under contract law. First, if an individual has not yet secured the contract to perform duties to another, he/she cannot assign his/her future right to an assignee . That is, if A has not yet contracted with B to teach B guitar, A cannot assign his/her rights to C. Second, rights cannot be assigned when they materially change the obligor ’s duty and rights. Third, the obligor can sue the assignee directly if the assignee does not pay him/her. Following the previous example, this means that C ( obligor ) can sue B ( assignee ) if C teaches guitar to B, but B does not pay C $50 in return.
(2) Delegation of Duties
If the promised performance requires a rare genius or skill, then the delegee cannot delegate it to the obligor. It can only be delegated if the promised performance is more commonplace. Further, an obligee can sue if the assignee does not perform. However, the delegee is secondarily liable unless there has been an express release of the delegee. That is, if B does want C to teach guitar but C refuses to, then B can sue C. If C still refuses to perform, then B can compel A to fulfill the duties under secondary liability.
Lastly, a related concept is novation , which is when a new obligor substitutes and releases an old obligor. If novation occurs, then the original obligor’s duties are wiped out. However, novation requires an original obligee’s consent .
Under property law, assignment typically arises in landlord-tenant situations. For example, A might be renting from landlord B but wants to another party (C) to take over the property. In this scenario, A might be able to choose between assigning and subleasing the property to C. If assigning , A would be giving C the entire balance of the term, with no reversion to anyone whereas if subleasing , A would be giving C for a limited period of the remaining term. Significantly, under assignment C would have privity of estate with the landlord while under a sublease, C would not.
[Last updated in May of 2020 by the Wex Definitions Team ]
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Contract Assignment Agreement
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This Contract Assignment Agreement document is used to transfer rights and responsibilities under an original contract from one Party, known as the Assignor, to another, known as the Assignee. The Assignor who was a Party to the original contract can use this document to assign their rights under the original contract to the Assignee, as well as delegating their duties under the original contract to that Assignee. For example, a nanny who as contracted with a family to watch their children but is no longer able to due to a move could assign their rights and responsibilities under the original service contract to a new childcare provider.
How to use this document
Prior to using this document, the original contract is consulted to be sure that an assignment is not prohibited and that any necessary permissions from the other Party to the original contract, known as the Obligor, have been obtained. Once this has been done, the document can be used. The Agreement contains important information such as the identities of all parties to the Agreement, the expiration date (if any) of the original contract, whether the original contract requires the Obligor's consent before assigning rights and, if so, the form of consent that the Assignor obtained and when, and which state's laws will govern the interpretation of the Agreement.
If the Agreement involves the transfer of land from one Party to another , the document will include information about where the property is located, as well as space for the document to be recorded in the county's official records, and a notary page customized for the land's location so that the document can be notarized.
Once the document has been completed, it is signed, dated, and copies are given to all concerned parties , including the Assignor, the Assignee, and the Obligor. If the Agreement concerns the transfer of land, the Agreement is then notarized and taken to be recorded so that there is an official record that the property was transferred.
The assignment of contracts that involve the provision of services is governed by common law in the " Second Restatement of Contracts " (the "Restatement"). The Restatement is a non-binding authority in all of U.S common law in the area of contracts and commercial transactions. Though the Restatement is non-binding, it is frequently cited by courts in explaining their reasoning in interpreting contractual disputes.
The assignment of contracts for sale of goods is governed by the Uniform Commercial Code (the "UCC") in § 2-209 Modification, Rescission and Waiver .
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Other names for the document: Assignment Agreement, Assignment of Contract Agreement, Contract Assignment, Transfer of Contract Agreement, Transfer of Agreement
Country: United States
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Consent to assignment
Consent to assignment clause samples
3. FieldPoints Consent to Assignment. FieldPoint hereby consents to this assignment by Assignor to Assignee as provided in this Agreement. Such consent is expressly conditioned upon Assignees acknowledgment and agreement that neither this consent nor anything contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to modify, alter, amend, or waive any provisions of the Agreement.
04/11/2017 (FIELDPOINT PETROLEUM CORP)
2. Consent to Assignment. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, each party hereto hereby consents to the assignment, grant, pledge, conveyance and transfer by the other party hereto, for the benefit of any lender, agent or other secured party under any financing arrangement to which the Partnership is a party, of a lien, security interest or other encumbrance on and continuing security interest in all of such other partys estate, title and interest in its Interest and the exercise by each such secured party of its rights and remedies in connection therewith, including, without limitation, the right to exercise the voting and consensual rights and other powers with respect to such Interest and the right to foreclose upon, or exercise a power of sale with respect to, such Interest and to cause such secured party or any third party designee or purchaser of such Interest to become an additional or substitute partner in the Partnership.
06/15/2018 (Cheniere Energy Partners, L.P.)
1. Consent to Assignment. The undersigned hereby acknowledges and consents to the assignment of the Power Plant Equipment Lease to Buyer and the assumption of the Power Plant Equipment Lease by Buyer in conjunction with Buyers acquisition of the Hotel. The undersigned waives any and all rights of notice relating to such assignment and any right to terminate the Power Plant Equipment Lease as a result of such assignment and any default, event of default or defense to enforceability that may otherwise arise as a result of such assignment.
09/27/2016 (Playa Hotels & Resorts B.V.)
3. Consent to Assignment. Assignor hereby consents to the admittance of Assignee as a substitute member of the Company. Assignor hereby waives all provisions, if any, in the Limited Liability Company Agreement of the Company or provided in the Delaware Limited Liability Company Act or any other applicable law, that would prohibit, delay, require notice of, grant rights in connection with, or require compliance with any other requirements in connection with, such assignment and admission.
06/29/2018 (Berry Petroleum Corp)
3.Consent to Assignment. Citi consents to the assignment and assumption of the Agreement from Polaris India to Virtusa India , and with respect to Polaris India, the assignment and assumption of any Transactional Document executed by Polaris India to Virtusa India, and Citi acknowledges the rights, responsibilities, and authority of Virtusa India as though Virtusa India were the original party under the Agreement and Transactional Documents to which Polaris India was a party. Other than as set forth above, for the other Transactional Documents to which an Affiliate of Polaris India was a party, such Transactional Documents are not assigned but rather shall now reflect the changed name of such Affiliate per the table above.
07/31/2020 (VIRTUSA CORP)
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A Further Look at Consent to Assignment Agreements
Consent to Assignment for engineers, also referred to as an Acknowledgement and Consent or a “will-serve letter,” is usually drafted by the bank providing construction financing for a project. A typical consent requires the engineer to agree that the bank can exercise the rights it has acquired through an assignment from the owner; among these rights will be the right to assume the design agreement if the owner defaults on the construction loan. Prior articles (June and July 2017, STRUCTURE magazine) looked at key concerns with respect to consent agreements, specifically whether the lender is required to pay outstanding amounts due to the engineer, whether the lender has the right to use the plans and specifications if it does not assume the design agreement, and what information or certifications the lender is entitled to. This article looks at some of the other provisions commonly found in these agreements.
When the owner is a public or quasi-public entity such as a city or a water district, the document that the engineer is asked to sign may include the actual assignment. In such cases, the form may start with an introductory paragraph such as:
THIS ASSIGNMENT OF ENGINEER’S CONTRACT AND ENGINEER’S AGREEMENT AND CONSENT TO ASSIGNMENT (this “Assignment”) is made as of _____ by and between _____ (“Borrower”) and _____ (“Engineer”) for the benefit of _____ (“Lender”).
In such cases, the document creates obligations for both the owner (the borrower) and the engineer, so both parties must sign it. Typically, however, if the owner is a private entity, the engineer will not be provided with the assignment; it is simply asked to acknowledge that the assignment must occur before the loan is closed. In most cases, the lender will require that the contractor, the architect, and other key consultants also agree that their contracts can be assigned and may list all of the contracts to be assigned in a single document. The consent may then include wording such as:
The undersigned, as Engineer under the agreement dated _____ (the “Agreement”) between _____ (“Borrower”) and the undersigned, which is one of the contracts referred to in the Assignment of Agreements, Licenses, Permits and Contracts (the “Assignment”) between Borrower and _____ (“Lender”), hereby acknowledges and consents to the terms of the Assignment.
If, as is usual, the engineer does not know the terms of the Assignment, it is not reasonable to expect the engineer to sign a document stating that it agrees to the terms. The engineer is agreeing to the assignment of the design agreement; the above provision should be edited as follows:
hereby acknowledges and consents to assignment of the design agreement.
Often, the consent will state that the design agreement is being used as collateral for the loan. There may, for example, be a provision stating:
As a condition to Lender making the Loan to Borrower, Lender has required that Borrower collaterally assign the Contract to Lender pursuant to the Assignment of Contracts made by Borrower for the benefit of Lender (the “Assignment”).
The assignment may, in fact, be called a “Collateral Assignment.” This does not create an obligation on the engineer or affect the engineer’s rights, however. Even when the assignment is not specifically referred to as a Collateral Assignment, it is likely that the lender is considering the design agreement as collateral. Lenders generally want a security interest in all of the project assets as collateral for the financing; this includes not just the physical assets of the project but also the design agreements, construction contracts, supply agreements, and easements. The Assignment itself will generally contain wording such as:
FOR VALUE RECEIVED, and as additional security for the Loan, Borrower hereby transfers, assigns and grants a security interest in favor of Lender, in all of the rights of Borrower in its contract with _____ (Engineer) dated _____.
Since each lender has its own form, an engineer is typically not asked to sign a Consent to Assignment until the owner is arranging the construction loan; this may be weeks or even months after the design agreement was signed. However, some design agreements contain a simple, one-paragraph statement of consent, using language such as:
Engineer agrees that if Developer defaults under the provisions of this Agreement, Engineer shall, if requested, continue to perform its obligations under this Agreement for Lender. Lender shall agree in writing to perform all obligations of Developer after the date Lender succeeds to Developer’s rights and obligations.
As written, the above provision only requires the lender to pay the engineer for services provided after the lender assumes the agreement; the lender has no obligation to pay any outstanding amounts owed to the engineer. At a minimum, the above provision should be edited as follows:
…Lender shall agree in writing to perform all obligations of Developer including payment of all outstanding amounts due to Engineer.
The language in AIA B101 can also be used as a guide. Before 1987, the AIA owner-architect agreements prohibited assignment of the agreement without the consent of the other party. However, the 1987 and subsequent versions of these agreements have included an exception for assignments to the lender, in recognition of the fact that such assignments are common.
Section 10.3 of AIA B101-2017 states:
…Neither the Owner nor the Architect shall assign this Agreement without the written consent of the other, except that the Owner may assign this Agreement to a lender providing financing for the Project if the lender agrees to assume the Owner’s rights and obligations under this Agreement, including any payments due to the Architect by the Owner prior to the assignment.
Thus, the owner can assign the agreement to its lender without obtaining the A/E’s consent, provided the lender assumes all of the owner’s obligations, including outstanding payments. If the lender requires the A/E to execute (sign) a consent agreement, §10.4 of B101 includes the further provision:
If the Owner requests the Architect to execute consents reasonably required to facilitate assignment to a lender, the Architect shall execute all such consents that are consistent with this Agreement, provided the proposed consent is submitted to the Architect for review at least 14 days prior to execution.
Section 10.4 makes it clear that the A/E is not required to execute a consent that would require the A/E to do more than what is required under the design agreement.
A Consent to Assignment will often state that the engineer’s consent is a condition to the loan. The typical wording is:
Engineer acknowledges that Lender is relying on this Consent as a condition of extending the Loan.
If the owner defaults on the loan, this statement could theoretically allow the lender to argue that it has relied on the consent to its detriment, thus giving it rights against the engineer that it would not otherwise have. However, the language is standard in consent agreements and is generally considered to be just an acknowledgment that the engineer’s consent is a condition of the loan. In contrast, the engineer should not agree to provisions that suggest the consent is being signed as an inducement to the lender, as the word “induce” provides the lender a much stronger basis to argue that it has relied on the consent to its detriment. Provisions such as the following should be deleted:
Engineer is executing this Consent of Engineer to induce Lender to advance funds under the Loan Agreement.
The consent is being signed as a courtesy to the engineer’s client, not as an inducement to the lender.▪
Disclaimer: The information in this article is for educational purposes only and is not legal advice. Readers should not act or refrain from acting based on this article without seeking appropriate legal or other professional advice as to their particular circumstances.
About the author ⁄ Gail S. Kelley, P.E., Esq.
Gail S. Kelley is licensed attorney in Massachusetts, Maryland and D.C. She is the author of “Construction Law: An Introduction for Engineers, Architects, and Contractors” ([email protected]).
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United States: When Is An "Assignment" Clause Worth Fighting For?
Q. My small business is negotiating with a vendor who has asked to remove our contract’s “assignment” clause entirely. Is it worth the time to argue over whether to include an assignment clause?
A. First, it’s important to understand the purpose of the assignment clause. “Assignment” occurs when a party transfers its rights and obligations under a contract to another party. Generally, unless the parties have agreed otherwise, each can assign its rights and obligations freely.
Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code, a set of laws governing the sale of goods that has been adopted by 49 states, including New Hampshire, provides that a party can freely assign its rights and obligations to another unless such assignment would materially change the duties of the other party, burden the other party, or decrease the other party’s chances of receiving performance under the contract.
If your vendor eliminates the assignment clause and no agreement on the topic is provided in the contract, your vendor will be free to transfer its obligations to another person or company without giving you notice or obtaining your approval.
Parties do have the ability, however, to mutually decide against the free assignability of a contract and this is often accomplished through an assignment clause. An assignment clause spells out which, if any, of a party’s obligations and rights under a contract are able to be assigned, or transferred, to another party. Free assignability and no assignability are not the only options, and you and your vendor can negotiate terms for assignment that are amenable to both of you.
For example, some clauses allow for assignment with the other party’s consent, meaning, the vendor would have to obtain your approval of the assignee prior to assigning any of its rights or obligations under the contract. Other times, assignment clauses allow for free assignment only to certain persons or entities, such as the vendor’s subsidiaries and affiliates, provided that the vendor gives you notice of such permitted assignment. Another option is to allow for assignment by the vendor provided that it guaranties the assignee’s performance.
Consider potential situations in which the vendor may want to assign the contract and determine whether it’s important to you to have control over assignment in each instance.
Consider discussing situations in which it may be important for the vendor to have freedom of assignment and, instead of removing the provision all together, specify those situations in which assignment is permitted, list those rights or obligations that are assignable, and consider whether, when assignment is permitted, notice, consent or a guaranty will be required.
Published in the Union Leader (2/25/2019)
The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.
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Contract Assignment Agreement
Jump to section, need help with a legal contract, what is a contract assignment agreement.
A contract assignment agreement is a document that transfers the contractual rights and duties of one party to another. The other party involved in the contract must agree to the terms of the transfer as well as they will now be in a contractual agreement with a different party.
Contract of assignment agreements must not violate any other laws or statutes in order to be enforced. The original contract must also allow assignments, or at least not explicitly prohibit them. Contract of assignment agreements cannot alter what is expected from the original contract.
Contract Assignment Agreement Sample
Reference : Security Exchange Commission - Edgar Database, EX-10.45 61 dex1045.htm ASSIGNMENT OF CONTRACT , Viewed October 27, 2022, View Source on SEC .
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Assignment of Contract (What It Is And How It Works: Best Overview)
Looking for Assignment of Contract ?
What is the assignment of a contract in simple terms?
How does it work?
In this article, I will break down the meaning of contract assignment so you know all there is to know about it!
Keep reading as I have gathered exactly the information that you need!
Let me explain to you what assignment of contract means and why it matters!
Are you ready?
Let’s get started!
Table of Contents
What Is Assignment of Contract
The assignment of contract refers to instances where one party to a contract transfers its rights and obligations to another party.
In other words, one contracting party exits the contract and another party steps in the exiting party’s shoes.
For instance, Mary and Joe are parties to a contract.
Joe assigns his rights and obligations under the contract to Tim.
The original contract now continues between Mary and Tim where Joe has stepped out.
The party assigning the contract is called the “assignor” and the third party stepping in to the assignor’s shoes is the “assignee”.
Be sure to keep reading as I will explain to you how the assignment works and it’s important that you know more about the assignor’s liability when assigning the contract.
Assignment Under Contract Law
Under contract law , the assignment of a contract is considered to include the assignment of rights and the delegation of the party’s duties to another.
This means that the assignor’s rights are passed on to the assignee.
In addition to that, the assignor’s duties under the contract are also assigned to the assignee.
Assignment Under Property Law
In property law, the assignment of contract generally takes place between landlords and tenants.
Typically, a person (the tenant) will sign a lease with another party (the landlord) to rent an apartment or premises.
If the tenant wishes to leave the premise without breaching the terms of the contract, an assignment may be an option.
In that case, the tenant will assign its rights and duties under the lease agreement to another party (a new tenant).
How Assignment of Contract Works
To better understand the assignment of contract, let’s look more closely at how it works.
Contract Assignment Clause
One of the first things you should consider when contemplating an assignment of a contract is to find the contract assignment clause in your contract.
In most commercial contracts, the parties will include an assignment clause governing the possible assignment by the parties.
Some contracts will authorize the assignment, others will limit assignment to specific situations, while some contracts entirely prohibit assignments.
Be sure to read the contract assignment to see how your contract regulates assignments.
Consent To Assignment of Contract
In most cases, a contracting party looking to assign the contract to another party will need to get the consent of the other contracting party.
If the staying party consents to the assignment, the assignor can proceed with the assignment of the agreement to a third party (or assignee).
However, if the staying party does not consent to the assignment, then the other party must remain in the contract and observe its contractual obligations.
Assigning a contract does not necessarily mean that the assignor will be released of all liability under the contract.
Depending on the assignment clause language, the assignor may have the right to assign the contract but continue to remain liable under the contract.
In the event the assignor may continue to remain liable under the contract, it’s important that an assignment agreement be signed where the staying party releases and discharges the assignor of future contract liability .
Under the assignment law, when a contract is assigned as per the terms of the contract, the assignment will be legally enforceable.
However, assignment contracts are not enforceable if the contract prohibits the assignment, the assignment agreement is not materially consistent with the obligations under the original contract, or the assignment violates public policy or the law in some way.
In addition, a contract cannot be assigned if the assignor is not formally in a contract.
There are also instances where the contract requires that a party with special skills or unique characteristics render the services or perform the obligations, and an assignment would not work.
Keep reading as I will now give you an example of contract assignment so you can see how it works in practice.
Contract Assignment Process
The actual contract assignment process is fairly straightforward for most contracts.
Contract Assignment Steps
Here are the steps you’ll need to take to assign a contract:
- See if the contract has an assignment clause
- Make sure that the assignment clause authorizes assignments
- If the assignment is authorized, follow the assignment logistic provided in the contract
- If the assignment is prohibited, you may want to speak to the other contracting party to see if you could get consent to assign the contract
In some cases, all you may need to do is to give notice of assignment to provide the details of the assignment if the contract allows for an assignment this way.
In other cases, you may want to have an assignment agreement signed by the staying party, the exiting party, and the third party detailing the terms and conditions of the assignment.
Assignment Agreement Content
When a contract assignment agreement is needed, you should make sure that you include all the right information for the assignment to be valid and enforceable.
In most cases, the assignment of the contract is simple where you may find an assignment of contract form online to complete.
For simple assignment contracts, here is the content that you should expect:
- Identification of the parties (original contract parties and assignee)
- Contract assignment effective date
- Original contracting party’s consent to the assignment
- Assignee’s acceptance of the assignment
- Assignor’s release and discharge of obligations going forward
- Governing law
- Signature block for the three parties
Alternatives To Assignment Contracts
What are the alternatives to a contract assignment?
Here are the main alternatives to a contract assignment:
Licensing refers to situations when a party authorizes another party to use a property or asset (whether tangible or intangible).
Delegation is when someone authorizes another to act on its behalf under a contract.
Novation is when a new party takes on a contracting party’s rights and obligations where the existing party’s rights are relinquished and all liability under the original contract wiped out.
Assignment of Contract vs Delegation of Contract
What is the difference between the assignment of a contract and the delegation of a contract?
The “assignment” of contract refers to a situation where one contracting party “transfers” the contract to a third party.
Once the assignment is completed, the assignor will no longer be in a contract with the other contracting party and the assignee will take the assignor’s place.
For example, Party A and Party B are part of a service contract.
Party B assigns the contract to Party C.
Going forward, the contract will be between Party A and Party C.
On the other hand, a delegation is when a party to a contract subcontracts parts of a contract to another party.
The party delegating the contract to another remains a contracting party and will remain responsible for the contract even though the obligations were delegated to another.
For example, a general contractor may delegate the plumbing work in a project to a plumber.
Although the general contractor has delegated part of the project to a subcontractor, it remains a contracting party and will remain responsible for the overall project.
Assignment of Contract Example
Let’s look at a few examples of when a contract may be assigned to another.
Assignment of Contract In Bankruptcy
You have entered into a contract with a company providing you with phone services.
The company goes bankrupt.
In the context of the bankruptcy, another phone company buys out a portion of the bankrupt’s book of business and your contract is in the pool of assets purchased.
The bankruptcy trustee assigns your contract from the bankrupt phone company to the new phone company.
Assignment of Contract In Real Estate
In real estate, some investors engage in assignment transactions where they do not actually buy the property but enter into a purchase contract that it then assigns to another.
In essence, the real estate investor enters into a real estate purchase agreement defining the terms and conditions relating to the purchase of a property.
Following the executing of the real estate purchase agreement and prior to the “closing” of the transaction, it assigns the contract to another party in an attempt to make a profit without ever actually owning the property.
Assignment of Contract In Corporate Restructuring
In the corporate world, companies tend to restructure their operations to ensure they are legally and operationally optimized.
In the context of a corporate restructuring transaction, a company may assign a contract to another entity within its group, a subsidiary, or an affiliate.
Assignment of Agreement Takeaways
So there you have it folks!
What Does Assignment of Contract Mean
“Assignment of contract” is a legal term used to refer to situations where a party to an existing contract transfers its contractual obligations to another party.
Following the assignment , the assignee becomes responsible to execute the contractual obligations in favor of the party staying in the original contract.
If you are looking to assign a contract, you may want to consult with a qualified contract attorney who can assess your rights and obligations.
Keep in mind that a simple assignment of a contract does not necessarily mean that the assignor is released from liability under the original contract.
Now that you know what is an assignment of contract, how it works, and what it entails, good luck with your transaction!
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If you enjoyed this article on what is an assignment contract, I recommend you look into the following terms and concepts. Enjoy!
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